IJSRSET calls volunteers interested to contribute towards the scientific development in the field of Science, Engineering and Technology

Home > IJSRSET151362                                                     

Development of Castor Oil - Graphite Lubricants for Cold Extrusion of Aluminium Alloy


M. E. Ibrahim, U. B. Shehu, A. Raji, M. A. Hassan
  • Abstract
  • Authors
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Details
The study was conducted to develop castor oil graphite lubricants for cold extrusion of aluminium alloy and to investigate the effect of the developed lubricant on the extrusion pressure of aluminium alloy. Cold extrusion process at a constant extrusion ratio of 1.25:1 was used on 14mm diameter by 30mm long aluminium alloy billets. Experimental results showed that onset pressure ranges from 19.857MPa to 13.652MPa and final pressure ranges from 17.168MPa to 12.411MPa for formulated lubricants. Onset pressure of 21.718MPa and final pressure of 18.616MPa for unlubricated extrusion and onset pressure of 15.720MPa and final pressure of 13.238MPa for standard lubricant were obtained. Compared with unlubricated extrusions, lubrication ensured a drop in onset and final pressures by 5.998MPa and 5.378MPa, respectively for standard lubricant and a drop in onset and final pressures by 8.066MPa and 6.205MPa, respectively for the optimum formulated lubricant with 15% graphite and 85 % castor oil. The tribological properties of the formulated optimum lubricant were found to be 7.31, 171.2oC, 0.93g/cm3, 1.0546cSt, 0.939 and 2.294J/kgK for pH value, flash point, density, viscosity, specific gravity and specific heat capacity, respectively. The optimum formulated lubricant significantly reduced extrusion load and is considered satisfactory for cold extrusion of aluminium alloy.

M. E. Ibrahim, U. B. Shehu, A. Raji, M. A. Hassan

Castor Oil, Final Extrusion Pressure, Graphite, Lubricant, Onset Extrusion Pressure, Triobological Properties.

  1. Abere, J. O., and Adeyemi, M. B. 2008. Tribological-thermal characteristics of vegetable oils for application as renewable lubricants. Nigerian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 5(1), 14-26.
  2. Bartz, W. J. 2006. Ecotribology: Environmentally acceptable tribological practices. Tribology International, 39, 728-733.
  3. Bestsynthetic .n.d. Typical Technical Properties of Lubricants. http://www.bestsynthetic.com/techprops.shtml. Accessed on January 22nd, 2014.
  4. Black, J. T., and Kohser, R. A. 2008. DeGarmo’s Materials and Processes in Manufacturing.10th ed., Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
  5. Bowden, F. P., and Tabor, D. 1974. Friction: An Introduction to Tribology. London: Heinemann.
  6. Brandes, E. A., and Brook, G. B. 1992. Smithells Metals Reference Book. 7th ed. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
  7. Cameron, A., and Mcfethes, C. M. 1987. Basic Lubrication Theory, 3rd ed., New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd.
  8. Caminaga, C., Silva Issii, R. L. D., and Button, S. T. 2006. Alternative lubrication and lubricants for the cold extrusion of steel parts. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 179, 87-91.
  9. Dorfman, I. 2000. Density of cooking oil. In: G. Elert (ed.). The Physics Factbook, 2000. www.hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/ingadorfman.shtml. Accessed on January 22nd, 2014.
  10. Duncan, C. B., Hartley, R. J., and Tiffany, G. M. 2000. Synthetic biodegradable lubricants and functional fluids. US Patent US6054420 A.
  11. Eugene A. A., and Theodore, B. 1996. Mark’s Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers.10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  12. Gawrilow, I. 2003. Palm oil usage in lubricants. 3rd global oils and fats Business forum, USA. October 8th, 2003.
  13. Halling, J. 1987. Principles of Tribology. London: Macmillan.
  14. Herguth, W.R. 2000. Physical and Chemical Properties of Mineral Oils that affect Lubrication. Florida: Herguth laboratories Inc.
  15. Ibhadode, A. O. A. 2001. Introduction to Manufacturing Technology. 2nd ed. Benin City, Nigeria: Ambik Press.
  16. Komiya, H. 2005. The present condition and the technical trend of natural decomposition of vegetables oil and fat. The Tribology, 216(8), 28-32.
  17. Lange, K. (1985). Handbook of Metal Forming. New York: McGraw Hill.
  18. Lazzarotto, L., Dubar, L, Dubois, A., Ravassard, P., Bricout, J. P., and Oudin, J. 1998. Selection methodology for lubricating oils in cold metal forming processing. Wear, 215(1-2), 1-9.
  19. Nigerian Industrial Standard.1997. Standard for Engine Lubricating Oil for Motor Vehicles, NIS 370: 1997. Abuja: Standard Organization of Nigeria.
  20. Obi, A. I., and Oyinlola, A. K. 1996. Frictional characteristics of fatty-based oils in wire drawing. Wear, 194, 30-37.
  21. Ogunniyi, D. S. 2006. Castor oil: A vital industrial raw material. Bioresource Technology, 97(9), 1086-1091.
  22. Onawola, O. O., and Adeyemi, M. B. 2003. Warm compression and extrusion tests of aluminum. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 136(1), 7-11
  23. Syahrullail, S., Zubil, B. M., Azwadi, S. N., and Ridzuan, M. J. M. 2011. Experimental evaluations of palm oil as a lubricant in cold forward extrusion process. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 53, 549-555.
  24. Wick, C., Benedict, J., and Veilleux, R. 1984. Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook. Volume 2: Forming. 4th ed. Dearborn, Michigan, USA: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 1 | Issue 3 | May-June - 2015
Date of Publication Print ISSN Online ISSN
2015-06-25 2395-1990 2394-4099
Page(s) Manuscript Number   Publisher
302-308 IJSRSET151362   Technoscience Academy

Cite This Article

M. E. Ibrahim, U. B. Shehu, A. Raji, M. A. Hassan, "Development of Castor Oil - Graphite Lubricants for Cold Extrusion of Aluminium Alloy ", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp.302-308, May-June-2015.
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET151362.php