Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem as it involves the release of acidic, sulphate- and metal-containing water into the environment. It usually has low pH which is acidic and contains toxic and non-biodegradable pollutants such as heavy metals, e.g. lead (Pb), aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Passive treatment has been regarded as a reliable means for treating AMD and was assessed in this study using multiple substrates. This study aims to provide an evaluation of passive treatment of metal- and sulphate-rich AMD incorporating limestone, spent mushroom compost and activated sludge (mixed substrates). Batch experiment was conducted using different mixture of treatment media over 120 hours. Synthetic mine water was used in the batch experiment. Samples were analysed for pH and alkalinity increase, sulphate reduction and heavy metal removals. Spent mushroom compost was found to be effective in producing the highest increase in pH and alkalinity as well as the greatest sulphate removal among other single media. The mixed substrates (40% limestone, 30% spent mushroom compost, 20% activated sludge, and 10% woodchips) were effective for the removal of most heavy metals studied.
Siti Nurjaliah Muhammad, Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Mohd Syakirin Md Zahar, Nur Syafika Madzlen, Elizabeth Rinta Gaung
Acid Mine Drainage, Passive Treatment, Limestone, Spent Mushroom Compost, Activated Sludge
- Neculita, C.M., Zagury, G.J. and Bussière, B. 2007. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage in bioreactors using sulphate-reducing bacteria: critical review and research needs, Journal of Environmental Quality, 36: 1-16.
- Akcil, A. and Koldas, S. 2006. Acid mine drainage (AMD): causes, treatment and case studies, Journal of Cleaner Production, 14: 1139-1145.
- Johnson, D.B. and Hallberg, K.B. 2005. Acid mine drainage remediation options: A review, Science of the Total Environment338, 3-14.
- Brown, M., Barley, B. and Wood, H. 2002. Mine water treatment. In: M. Brown, B. Barley, and H. Wood (Eds.), The mine-water problem, (pp.1-31). London, England: IWA Publishing, Alliance House, London, 1-31.
- Younger P.L., Banwart S.A. and Hedin R.S. 2002. Mine water: Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Dodrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
- Hedin, R.S., Nairn, R.W. and Kleinmann, R.L.P. 1994. Passive treatment of coal mine drainage. U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular IC 9389.
- Kusin, F.M. 2013. A review of the importance of hydraulic residence time on improved design of mine water treatment systems, World Applied Sciences Journal, 26: 1316-1322.
- Cravotta III, C.A. and Trahan, M.K. 1999. Limestone drains to increase pH and remove dissolved metals from acidic mine drainage, Appl. Geochem., 14: 581-606
- Hamilton, Q.U.I., Lamb, H.M., Hallett, C. and Proctor, J.A. 1999. Passive treatment systems for the remediation of acid mine drainage at Wheal Jane, Cornwall, J Chart Inst Water Environ Manag., 13: 93- 103.
- Kusin, F. M., Jarvis, A. P. and Gandy, C. J. 2010. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning, Water Science and Technology, 62(8): 1937-1946.
- Kusin, F.M., Jarvis, A.P. and Gandy, C.J. 2012. Hydraulic performance assessment of passive coal mine water treatment systems in the UK, Ecological Engineering, 49:233-243.
- Fu, F. and Wang, Q. 2011. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review, J. Environ. Manage., 407-418.
- Kurniawan, T. A., Chan, G.Y.S., Lo, W. H. and Babel, S. 2006. Physico-chemical treatment techniques for wastewater laden with heavy metals, Chemical Engineering Journal,118: 83-98.
- PIRAMID Consortium. 2003. Engineering guidelines for the passive remediation of acidic and/or metalliferous mine drainage and similar wastewaters,In: European Commission 5th Framework Programme “Passive In-situ Remediation of Acid Mine / Industrial Drainage” (PIRAMID), University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, 166 pp.
- Hanselmann, K. 1994. Microbial Activitites and their Eco-chemical Influence. In: J. Boffle and R.R. De Vitre, chemical and biological regulation of aquatic systems. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton (FL).
- Hedin, R.S., Hammack, R.W. and Hyman, D.M. 1989. Potential importance of sulphate reduction process in wetlands constructed to treat mine drainage. In: D. A. Hammer (Ed.), Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. (pp. 508-514). Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 508-514.
- Luptakova, A. and Kusnierova, M. 2005. Bioremediation of acid mine drainage by SRB, Hydrometallurgy, 77: 97-102.
- Mayes, W.M., Davis, J., Silva, V. and Jarvis, A.P. 2011. Treatment of zinc-rich acid mine water in low residence time bioreactors incorporating waste shells and methanol dosing, Journal of Hazardous Materials,193: 279-87.
- Kusin, F.M., Aris, A. and Misbah, A.S.A. 2013. A comparative study of anoxic limestome drain and open limestone channel for acidic raw water treatment, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 13:87-92.
- Balintova, M. and Petrilakova, A. 2011. Study of pH Influence on Selective Precipitation of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 25: 1-6.
- Nairn, R.W., Hedin, R.S. and Watzlaf, G.R. 1992. Generation of alkalinity in an anoxic limestone drain. In Proceedings. of the 9th Annual National meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, June 14-18, 206-237.
- Jong, T. and Parry, D. L. 2003. Removal of sulphate and heavy metals by sulphate reducing bacteria in short-term bench scale up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor runs, Water Research, 37 (14) 3379-3389.
- McCauley, C.A., O’Sullivan, A.D., Milke, M.W., Weber, P.A. and Trumm, D.A. 2009. Sulphate and metal removal in bioreactors treating acid mine drainage dominated with iron and aluminium, Water Res., 43: 961-970.
|Published in :
||Volume 1 | Issue 4 | July-August - 2015
|Date of Publication
Cite This Article
Siti Nurjaliah Muhammad, Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Mohd Syakirin Md Zahar, Nur Syafika Madzlen, Elizabeth Rinta Gaung, "Passive Treatment of Metal and Sulphate-Rich Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Using Mixed Limestone, Spent Mushroom Compost and Activated Sludge", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp.234-239, July-August-2015.
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET151438.php