A 70-day feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of live maggot and Coppens feed on the growth, food utilization and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).Triplicate group of fish with a mean initial wet weight of 100.50 ± 2.03 g and length of 9.09 ± 0.11 cm were stocked in six glass aquaria (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3) measuring 96 cm x 50 cm x29 cm. Fish in A1, A2 and A3 were fed live maggot and B1, B2 and B3 were fed Coppens feed at 5% of their body weight. Growth performance of fish fed Coppens feed evaluated using weight gain (g), length gain (cm), growth rate, specific growth rate, mean growth rate, percentage weight gain and survival varied significantly form fish fed live maggot. Fish fed Coppens feed consumed significantly (P<0.05) more food (1266.77 ± 29.24 g) than fish fed live maggot (784.70± 16.97 g). Food conversion ratio and food conversion efficiency of fish fed Coppens feed (1.56 ± 0.02 and 64.03 ± 0.69 %) was significantly better (P<0.05) than fish fed live maggot (1.66 ± 0.03 and 60.30 ± 0.96%). Proximate analysis of the dry matter (mg/100 g) of maggot meal contained 82.25 ± 0.12 moisture content, 44.56 ± 0.02 crude protein, 5.48 ± 0.05 crude fibre, 24.00± 0.05 mean fat and 5.00 ± 0.05 while Coppens feed contained 9.00 ± 0.05 moisture content, 42.50 ± 0.42 crude protein, 4.00 ± 0.20 crude fibre, 12.50± 0.05 mean fat and 9.40 ± 0.06. Percentage survival was higher (96.67 ± 5.80 %) in C. gariepinus fed Coppens feed than C. gariepinus fed live maggot (93.33 ± 5.80). Water quality parameters including water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were within the acceptable range for optimal fish growth and health. The implication of this results is that live maggot is incapable of providing C. gariepinus with all the nutrients required for optimal growth. It is therefore concluded that live maggot can be fed as a supplementary food and not as a complete ration or it can be further processed to maggot meal and used as supplementary protein source to replace or reduce the inclusion of fishmeal which is the most costly feed ingredient in fish feed.
Awom Iroamachi Emeka, Eyo Victor Oscar
Clarias gariepinus, Live maggot, Supplementary protein, Coppens feed, Growth performance, food utilization
- FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department (2013). Global Aquaculture Production Statistics for the year 2011 online]. Retrieved August 2, 2014 from ftp://ftp.fao.org/FI/news/GlobalAquacultureProductionStatistics2011.pdf
- FAO (2014). State of world Fisheries and Aquaculture. P.32.
- Eyo, V. O. and Ekanem, A. P. (2011): Effect of feeding frequency on the growth, food utilization and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using locally formulated diet. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, (9): 2, 11-17.
- Eyo, V. O. Ekanem, A. P. and Jimmy, U. U. (2014). A comparative study of the gonado-somatic index (GSI) and gonad gross morphology of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed Unical Aqua feed and Coppens commercial feed. Croatian Journal of Fisheries, 72:, 63 – 69..
- Jamu, D. M. and Ayinla, O. A. (2003). Potential for the development of aquaculture in Africa. NAGA, Iclarm Quarterly 26:9–13.
- Hardy, R. W., and A. G. J. Tacon (2002). Fish meal historical uses, production trends and 10. Responsible Marine Aquaculture, C. A. B. I. Publishing New York, USA.
- Alatise, S.P and Effiong, B.N. (2013). Growth Performance and Survival of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings Fed Local Smoked Fish Discarded Meal Based Diets. Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., 2 (10): 123-127
- Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 19 July, 2014. “Housefly”. Retrieved August 2, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Housefly
- Fashina-Bombata, H. A. and Balogun, O. (1997).The effect of partial or total replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in the diet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. Journal of prospects in science, 1: 178 – 181.
- Oti, B. (1988). Cultivation of earthworms and maggots in waste products of agricultural land industrial origin and assessing whether they are source of protein for Tilapia and Clarias. B. Sc. Thesis, Institute of Renewable and Natural Resource, U.S.T. Kumasi, Ghana.
- Sackey, K. E. (1989). Evaluation of the potential of incorporating earthworms and maggots in fish diets. B.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, U.S.T., Kumasi, Ghana.
- Sogbesan, A. O., Ajuonu, N. D., Ugwumba, A. A. A. and Madu, C. T. (2004). Cost benefits of maggot meal as supplemented feed in the diets of Heterobranchus longifilis X Clarias gariepinus (Pisces: Clariidae) hybrid fingerlings in outdoor concrete tanks. J. of Ind. & Sci. Res. 4: 231–237.
- Sogbesan, A. O. (1998). Nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed live maggot supplementary diets. Ph. D Thesis, University of Ibadan.
- Fasakin, E. A., Balogun, A. M. and Ajayi, O. O. (2003).Evaluation of full fat and defatted maggot meals in the feeding of clariid catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Aquaculture Research, 34: 733 – 738.
- Spinelli, J., Mahnken, C. and Steinberg, M. (1979).Alternative sources of protein for fish meal in Salmonid diets. Proc. World symp. On Finfish nutrition and fish feed technology, Hamburg 20 – 23 June (1978). Berlin Heenemann GMBH. 11: 132 – 143.
- Ajani, E. K., Nwanna, L. C. and Musa, B. O. (2004).Replacement of fishmeal with maggot meal in the diets of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. World aquaculture, 35: 52 – 54.
- Omoruwou, P. E. and Edem, C. U. (2011). Growth response of Heteroclarias hybrid fingerlings fed on maggot based diet. Nigerian journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 7(1):58 – 62.
- Atse, B.C., Ossey, Y. B., Koffi, K. M. and Kouame, P. L. (2014). Effects of Feeding by-Products; Maggot Meal, Fish Meal, Soybean Meal, Blood Meal and Beef Brain on Growth, Survival and Carcass Composition of African Catfish, Heterobranchus Longifilis Valenciennes, 1840 Larvae under Recirculating Conditions. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 2(4): 530 – 535.
- De Silva, S. S. and Anderson, T. A. (1995). Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture. Ghapman and Hall. London. 319pp.
- AOAC (2000): Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (AOAC). Official methods of analysis, 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
- Oso, J. A., Idowu, E. O. and Agoi, O. F. (2011). Growth response of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed Parkia biglobosa diet as protein source. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 4(2):82 – 84.
- Ugwumba, A.A.A., Ugwumba, A.O. and Okunola, A. O. (2001). Utilization of live maggot as a supplement feed on the growth of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fingerlings. Nigeria Journal of Science, 35 (1).
- Ayinla O.A. (1988). Nutritive and Reproductive performance of Clarias gariepinus. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan. Nigeria. 433p.
- Ekanem, A. P., Eteng, S. U., Nwosu, F. M., and Eyo, V. O. (2012). Comparative Study of the Growth and Gonad Development of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) Fed Diets with Plant and Animal-based Ingredients in Concrete Tanks. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2, 1203-1210.
- Eyo, V. O., Ekanem, A. P., Eni, G. E., Asikpo, P. E., Jimmy, U. (2013). Comparative study of growth performance, food utilization and survival of hatchery bred and wild collected fingerlings of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Greener Journal of Oceanography, 1(1): 1-10.
- Ekanem, A. P., Eyo, V. O., James, P. U., Udo, N. E. (2013). Effects of Unical Feed on Fecundity and Gonad Development of Clarias gariepinus; a Comparative Study with Coppens Commercial Feed in Earthen Pond. International Journal of Science and research, 2 (10): 8-14.
- Holm, E. and Moller, D. (1984). Growth performance of Atlantic Salmond fed on zooplankton. In: T. V. R. Lillay and W. A. Dill (Ed.). Farmham survey, England. Fishing New Books. Advances in aquaculture, 12: 33 – 41.
- Eyo, A. A. (1996). Feeding practices in fish farming. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR) Extension Guide Series, No. 7.
- Ovie, S. I. (1986). Some notes on the cultivation of live fish food. Fisheries Enterprises and Information Brochure in Commemoration of the 5th Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON). Pp. 11 – 76.
- Ndome, C. B. Ekwu, A.O. and Ateb, A. A. (2011). Effect of Feeding Frequency on Feed Consumption, Growth and Feed Conversion of Clarias gariepinus X Heterobranchus longifilis Hybrids. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 6 (1): 06-12, 2011
- Boyd, C. E. (1979). Water quality in warmwater fish ponds. Auburn University, Agriculture Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala.
- Viveen, W. R., Richter, C. J. J., Van Oordt, P. G., Janssen, J. A. L. and Huisman, E. A.(1986). Practical manual for the culture of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The Hague, Netherlands: Section for Research and Technology, Agricultural University of Wageningen.
|Published in :
||Volume 2 | Issue 2 | March-April - 2016
|Date of Publication
Cite This Article
Awom Iroamachi Emeka, Eyo Victor Oscar, "Comparative Study of Growth Performance, Food Utilization and Survival of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus
(BURCHELL, 1822) Fingerlings FED Live MAGGOT (Musca domestica
) and COPPENS Commercial Feed ", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp.379-386, March-April-2016.
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET162283.php