The overdependence on fossil fuels has resulted in significant socio-economic and environmental challenges such as global warming and climate change. The associated greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions have raised global temperatures by 2°C above pre-industrial levels worsening climate change. Similarly, lack of adaptive mitigative strategies could possibly result in disastrous effects on human health, safety, and the environment. However, this will require studies on the effects of rising temperatures, heat indexes and its effects on human health, safety and thermal comfort against the backdrop of rising global temperatures. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine and highlight the role of heat index on the thermal comfort health and safety of building occupants. It also presents perspectives on the potential health related disorders such as heat strokes, cramps, rashes arising from rising global temperatures, global warming and climate change. The findings showed setting up Low Carbon Materials (LCM), Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) and Sustainable Design Practises (SDP) could potential aid climate mitigation. In addition, the outlined strategies will improve, preserve and protect human health, safety and the thermal comfort of building occupants against the adverse effects of rising global temperatures and climate change.
Muhammed Gambo Abdullahi, Mohd Zin Bin Kandar, Lim Yaik Wah, Allan Joseph Usman
Heat Index, Thermal Comfort, Human health, Shady Conditions, Environment.
- Malhi, Y., Roberts, J. T., Betts, R. A., Killeen, T. J., Li, W., and Nobre, C. A., "Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon." Science, 2008. 319(5860): 169-172.
- National Research Council, Advancing the Science of Climate Change.2010:The National Academies Press. Washington, DC.
- Metz, B., Davidson, O. R., Bosch, P. R., Dave, R., and Meyer, L. A., "Contribution of Working Group III to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)." 2007.
- Dodo, Y. A., Nafida, R., Zakari, A., Elnafaty, A. S., Nyakuma, B. B., and Bashir, F. M., "Attaining Points for Certification of Green Building through Choice of Paint." Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2015. 45: 1879-1884.
- Clements, R., The Economic Cost of Climate Change in Africa, R. Berger and S. Peachey, Editors. 2009, Pan African Climate Justice Alliance (PACJA) Christian Aid.
- Konidari, P. and Mavrakis, D., "A multi-criteria evaluation method for climate change mitigation policy instruments." Energy Policy, 2007. 35(12): 6235-6257.
- Cohen, S., Demeritt, D., Robinson, J., and Rothman, D., "Climate change and sustainable development: towards dialogue." Global Environmental Change, 1998. 8(4): 341-371.
- Smit, B. and Pilifosova, O., "Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity." Sustainable Development, 2003. 8(9): 9.
- Nyong, A. O. and Kandil, H., Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa’s Water Sector: Contributions of the African Development Bank, in Climate Change Working Papers. 2010, African Development Bank: AfDB Headquarters. p. 1-3.
- European Commission (EC), White paper - Adapting to climate change : towards a European framework for action. 2009, European Commission (EC): Brussels, Belgium.
- Stocker, T., Qin, D., Plattner, G., Tignor, M., Allen, S., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, B., and Midgley, B., "IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change." 2013.
- Luber, G. and Mcgeehin, M., "Climate change and extreme heat events." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008. 35: 429-435.
- Huang, C., Barnett, A. G., Wang, X., Vaneckova, P., Fitzgerald, G., and Tong, S., "Projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios: a systematic review." Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011. 119 (1): 1681-1690.
- Phung et al., "Ambient temperature and risk of cardiovascular hospitalization: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis " Science of the Total Environment 2016. 550(1): 1084 –1102.
- Phung et al., "The effects of high temperature on cardiovascular admissions in the most populous tropical city in Vietnam " Environmental Pollution, 2016. 208(1): 33-39.
- Bonan, G. B., "Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests." Science, 2008. 320(5882): 1444-1449.
- McMichael, A. J., Powles, J. W., Butler, C. D., and Uauy, R., "Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health." The Lancet, 2007. 370(9594): 1253-1263.
- Parsons, K., Thermal comfort in buildings, in Materials for energy effiiency and thermal comfort in buildings, M.R. Hall, Editor. 2010, CRC Press - Woodhead Publishing Limited: United Kingdom (UK).
- ASHRAE, Thermal comfort conditions. 1966, ASHRAE standard New York, USA.
- Fanger, P. O., Thermal Comfort.1970:Danish Technical Press. Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Bedford, T., The warmth factor in comfort at work: a physiological study of heating and ventilation, in Industrial Health Research Board 1936, HMSO: London, UK.
- Bunker, A., Wildenhain, J., Vandenbergh, A., Henschke, N., Rocklöv, J., Hajat, S., and Sauerborn, R., "Effects of Air Temperature on Climate-Sensitive Mortality and Morbidity Outcomes in the Elderly; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Epidemiological Evidence. ." EBioMedicine, 2016.
- National Weather Service. "What is the heat index?" 2016 cited 2016 22nd June]; Available from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ama/?n=heatindex.
- Means, T. "Too Hot For Your Health: 5 Ways Summer Heat Can Make You Sick." 2016 cited 2016 24 June]; Available from: http://weather.about.com/od/weathertutorials/fl/What-is-Weather.htm.
- McMichael, A. J., Woodruff, R. E., and Hales, S., "Climate change and human health: present and future risks." The Lancet, 2006. 367(9513): 859-869.
- Meehl, G. A. and Tebaldi, C., "More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century." Science, 2004. 305(1): 994–997.
- Pilkey, O. H. and Cooper, J. A., "Climate - Society and sea level rise." Science, 2004. 303(1): 1781–1782.
- Commission, E. E., "Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action." White paper. COM (2009), 2009. 147(4).
- CTC-N. "Carbon Sink and Low-Carbon Building Materials." 2016 cited 2016 25th June, ]; Available from: ww.ctc-n.org/technology-library/energy-use/built-environment/carbon-sing-and-low-carbon-building-materials
- Lane, T. "Embodied energy: The next big carbon challenge." 2010; Available from: www.building.co.uk/technical/embodied-energy-the-next-big-carbon-chalenge.htm.
- Reddy, B. V. and Jagadish, K., "Embodied energy of common and alternative building materials and technologies." Energy and Buildings, 2003. 35(2): 129-137.
- Bashir, F. M., Mohd, H. A., Adetunji, A. B., and Dodo, Y. A., "Potentials of Wood as a Sustainable Construction Material in Nigeria." Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resources Management 2013. 5(2).
- Ruter, S." Consideration of Wood Products in climate policies and its linkaage to sustaiable building assessment schemes. ." in International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology, Geneva, Switzerland. 2010: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Timber Committee.
- Lou, Y. P., Li, Y. X., Kathleen, B., Giles, H., and Zhou, G., Bamboo and Climate Change Mitigation, I.N.f.B.a. Rattan, Editor. 2010, INBR: Beijing, China.
- Stewart, D. L., Daley, J. C., and Stephen, R. L., The importance of recycling to the environmental profile of metal products., in The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society Conference. 2000, Minerals, Metals and Materials Society: Pittsburgh, USA.
- Bobbo, H., Ali, A. M., Garba, I., and Salisu, M., "The Prospects and Challenges of incorporating Earth Construction Techniques (ECT) in the Nigerian Educational Curriculum." Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, 2015. 2(8): 2233-2237.
- Abimaje, J. and Baba, A. N., "An Assessment Of Timber As A Sustainable Building Material In Nigeria." International Journal of Civil Engineering, Construction and Estate Management, 2014. 1(2): 39-46.
- Ugochukwu, I. B. and Chioma, M. I. B., "Local Building Materials: Affordable Strategy for Housing the Urban Poor in Nigeria." Procedia Engineering, 2015. 118: 42-49.
- Bellia L, Marino C, Minichiello F, Pedace A. An overview on solar shading systems for buildings. Energy Procedia. 2014 Dec 31;62:309-17.
- Nyakuma, B. B." Bioelectricity potential of oil palm waste in Malaysia." in 3rd International Conference Research & Education in Natural Sciences (HERTSPO 2015). 2015: Shkodra BENA.
- Isa, A. S., Dodo, Y. A., Ojobo, H., and Alkali, I. A., "Deployment Of Smart Technologies For Improving Energy Efficiency In Office Buildings In Nigeria." Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, 2016. 3(1).
- Oyedepo, S. O., "Energy efficiency and conservation measures: tools for sustainable energy development in Nigeria." International Journal of Energy Engineering, 2012. 2(3): 86-98.
- Chow, D. H. C., Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in commercial buildings, in Materials for energy effiiency and thermal comfort in buildings, M.R. Hall, Editor. 2010, Woodhead Publishing Limited, : London, UK. p. 562-586.
- International Energy Agency (OECD/IEA), Technology Roadmap Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment. 2011, IEA: Paris, France. p. 1-56.
- Maleki, B. A., "Shading: Passive Cooling and Energy Conservation in Buildings." International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE), 2011(9): 72-79.
|Published in :
||Volume 2 | Issue 4 | July-August - 2016
|Date of Publication
Cite This Article
Muhammed Gambo Abdullahi, Mohd Zin Bin Kandar, Lim Yaik Wah, Allan Joseph Usman, "Perspectives on Heat Index and Climate Change on Thermal Comfort and Human Health", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp.07-14, July-August-2016.
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET1623252.php