Attenuation of two Field Isolates of Theileria Annulata and their Potential as Vaccine Candidates against Tropical Theileriosis in the Sudan

Authors(4) :-Sharieff O.E., Hassan S.M., Salih D. A., El Hussein A.M.

Two Theileria annulata schizont infected cell lines (Atbara and Hantoub) isolated from the field in Sudan were serially passaged in vitro. Testing of the cell lines at passage levels 90 and 75 for Atbara and Hantoub isolates respectively demonstrated that they were attenuated when inoculated subcutaneously into 10 naïve susceptible calves (five animals for each strain) at a dose rate of 2x106 cells per animal, while five animals were kept as uninoculated control group. Only mild thermal reactions were observed and neither piroplasms nor schizonts were detectable in the inoculated animals. When exposed to natural challenge in an area highly endemic for tropical theileriosis, all animals expressed typical acute tropical theileriosis clinical symptoms. However, only two (33%) of six inoculated animals, exposed to natural challenge, died while all the five (100%) non-inoculated control animals died indicating the potential of the two cell lines as candidate vaccines against tropical theileriosis.

Authors and Affiliations

Sharieff O.E.
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 8067, Al Amarat, Khartoum, Sudan
Hassan S.M.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum P.O. Box 32, Khartoum North, Sudan
Salih D. A.
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 8067, Al Amarat, Khartoum, Sudan
El Hussein A.M.
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 8067, Al Amarat, Khartoum, Sudan

Atbara; Cell Line; Hantoub; Sudan; Theileria Annulata; Vaccine


  1. Ali AM, Bakheit MA, Mukhtar MM, Hassan SM, Ahmed JS and Seitzer U. 2006. Epidemiology of Theileria annulata infection of dairy cattle in the Sudan using molecular techniques. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1081:471–
  2. Beniwal RK, Sharma RD, and Nichani AK. 2000. Determination of duration of immunity of calves vaccinated with the Theileria annulata schizont cell culture vaccine. Vet. Parasitol., 90: 25-35
  3. Brown CGD. 1990. Control of Tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection of cattle). Parasitologia, 32: 23-31.
  4. Darghouth MA, Ben Miled L, Bouattaur A, Melrose TR, Brown CGD and Kilani M. 1996. A preliminary study on the attenuation of Tunisian Schizont-infected cell line of Theileria annulata. Parasitol. Res., 82: 647-655.
  5. Dolan TT. 1989. Theileriosis: a comprehensive review. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 8:11–36.
  6. Gamal A, and El Hussein AM. 2003. Economic impact of theileriosis on a dairy farm in Northern Sudan. Sudan J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb., 42:272–
  7. Gubbels MJ, d’Oliveira C. and Jongejan F. 2000a. Development of an indirect Tams1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection in cattle. Clin. Diag. Lab. Immunol., 3: 404-411.
  8. Gubbels MJ, Viseras J, Habela MA, and Jongejan F. 2000b. Characterization of attenuated Theileria annulata vaccines from Spain and the Sudan.Ann.N.YAcad.Sci.916:521-532.
  9. Hashemi-Feshakri R. 1988. Control of Theileria annulata in Iran. Parasitol. Today, 4:36-40.
  10. Latif AA. 1994. Economic losses in exotic breeds of cattle due to theileriosis in Sudan. In: Atelmanan AM and Kheir SM (eds) Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan. Proceedings of a workshop held at the Sudan Veterinary Association Residence, Khartoum, Sudan, 4–5 May 1994.
  11. Nichani AK, Brown CGD, Campbell JDM, Maxwell MH, Waddington D. and Spooner RL. 1997. Allograft responses can interfere with the development of immunity against Theileria annulata following vaccination with parasite infected cell lines. Parasite Immunol., 19: 287-290.
  12. OIE 2004. Theileriosis. In Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, pp. 523–536
  13. Osman OM. 1992. Theileria annulata in Sudan. In: Recent advances in research and control of Theileria annulata (Dolan,T.T. ed). Proceedings of a workshop held at ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya,17-19 September 1990.pp 125.
  14. Ouhelli H, Kachani M, Fach E, Williamson S, El Husnaoui M, and Spooner R. 1997. Investigation on vaccination against theileriosis in Morocco. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod., 29: 103S.
  15. Pipano E. 1976. Control of bovine theileriosis and anaplasmosis in Israel. Bull. Off. Inter. Epiz.,86: 55-59.
  16. Robinson PM. 1982. Theileria annulata and its transmission. A review. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod., 14: 3-12.
  17. Salih DA, Sharieff OE, Lazarus AG, Hassan SM and El Hussein AM. 2005. Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 72: 303-307.
  18. Sayin F, Dincer S, Camak A, Yukari BA, Vatanserver Z, Nalbantoglu S and Deniz A. 1997. Tick-borne diseases in Turkey. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 29: 53S.
  19. Schalm OW, Jain NC and Carrol EJH. 1975. In: Veterinary Haematology, 3rdedition (Lea and Fchiger, Philadelphia).
  20. Sharieff OE, El Hussein AM, Hassan SM, Salma K, Salih DA and Majid AA. 2003. Establishment of Theileria cell culture system in the Sudan: A Mini-review. Sudan J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb., 42:147-158.
  21. Stepanova NL and Zablotsky VT. 1989. Bovine theileriosis in USSR.Sci.Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 8: 89-92.
  22. Uilenberg G. 1981. Theileria species of domestic livestock. In: Irvin, A.D., Cunningham, M.P., Young, A.S. (Eds.), Advances in Control of Theileriosis. Nijhoff (Martinus), The Hague, pp. 4–37.
  23. Viseras J, Garcia-Fernandez P and Androher FJ. 1997. Fields trials of immunization with an experimental vaccine against Mediterranean theileriosis in Spain. Vet. Re., 28: 397-403.
  24. Zhang ZH. 1997. A general review on the prevention and treatment of Theileria annulata in China. Vet. Parasitol., 70: 77-81.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 1 | January-February 2017
Date of Publication : 2017-02-28
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 54-58
Manuscript Number : IJSRSET1626161
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

Sharieff O.E., Hassan S.M., Salih D. A., El Hussein A.M., " Attenuation of two Field Isolates of Theileria Annulata and their Potential as Vaccine Candidates against Tropical Theileriosis in the Sudan, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp.54-58, January-February-2017.
Journal URL :

Article Preview