Organochlorine Pesticides Residues In Lake Naivasha Catchment Water

Authors(4) :-Vincent O. Madadi, Shem O. Wandiga, Elizabeth N. Ndunda, Kenneth M. Mavuti

Lake Naivasha, Kenya, hangs precariously in balance between economic exploitation and biodiversity conservation. There is increasing intensity of horticultural activities around the lake, believed to result in excessive water abstraction and heavy use of agrochemicals. This paper reports the findings of an investigation conducted to determine the extent environmental contamination of 17 organochlorine pesticides including metabolites namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDD, endosulfan I, endosulphan II, endosulphan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, methoxychlor, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and δ-HCH in 36 water samples collected from Lake Naivasha catchment. Residues of varying magnitude and spatial distribution were detected in the samples. The concentrations of α-HCH varied from 0.013-0.776 µg/l, γ-HCH (0.033-0.419 µg/l), β-HCH (0.004-0.059 µg/l), δ-HCH (<0.010-0.059 µg/l), heptachlor (0.571-7.000 µg/l), heptachlor epoxide (0.005-0.177 µg/l), aldrin (0.0050-0.597 µg/l), dieldrin (0.004-0.765 µg/l), endrin (0.005-0.195 µg/l), endrin aldehyde (0.020-0.256 µg/l) endosulphan I (0.020-0.124 µg/l), endosulphan II (<0.002-0.267 µg/l), endosulphan sulphate (<0.008-0.735 µg/l), p,p’-DDT (0.006-0.197 ng/l), p,p’-DDE (0.030-0.588 ng/l), p,p’-DDD (0.018-0.050 ng/l) and  methoxychlor (<0.002-0.891 µg/l), with heptachlor giving the highest overall concentration in most of the sites. The concentration showed wide variations from one sampling site to the other reflecting the socioeconomic diversity around the lake. Total pesticide concentrations in the catchment was in the following order Σheptachlors>Σmethoxychlor>Σaldrins> Σendosulphans>ΣHCHs >ΣDDTs>Σendrins. These results suggest that the occurrence is as a result of use of organoclorine pesticides in the catchment. Concern is therefore raised regarding the possible deleterious effects including endocrine disruption not only in livestock and human population but also wildlife, thus constituting a threat to the ecosystem health around the lake. 

Authors and Affiliations

Vincent O. Madadi
Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197- 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
Shem O. Wandiga
Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197- 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
Elizabeth N. Ndunda
Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197- 00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
Kenneth M. Mavuti
School of biological Sciences, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

Lake Naivasha, Organochlorine pesticides residues, water pollution; tropical ecosystems degradation

  1. Harper D.M., Mavuti K.M., Muchiri S.M. (1990) "Ecology and management of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, in relation to climate change, alien species’ introductions, and agricultural development”. Environmental Conservation. 17: 328-335.
  2. Harper D.M., Harper M.M., Virani M.A., Smart A., Childress R.B., Adatia R., Henderson I. & Chege B. (2002) Population fluctuations and their causes in the African Fish Eagle, (Haliaeetus vocifer (Daudin)) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 488: 171-180.
  3. Becht R. & Harper D. M. (2002) Towards an understanding of human impact upon the hydrology of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 488 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 168): 1 11.
  4. Becht R., Odada E.O. & Haggin S. (2006) Lake Naivasha. Experiences and Lessons Learned. Available from URL: Acessed 14th July 2017.
  5. Tarras-Wahlberg, H.,, M. Everard & D. M.Harper (2002) Geochemical and physical characteristics of river and lake sediments at Naivasha, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 488: 2741, 2002.
  6. Campbell L.M., Osano O., Hecky R.E. & Dixon D.G. (2003) Mercury in fish from three Rift Valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa. Environmental Pollution 125 (2003) 281286.
  7. PCPB. (2017) Banned pesticides in Kenya. Available from URL: Accessed 14th July 2017.
  8. Gitahi S.M., Harper D.M., Muchiri S.M., Tole M.P. & Ng’ang’a R. N. (2002). Organochlorine and organocphosphorus pesticide concentrations in water, sediment, and selected organisms in Lake Naivasha (Kenya). Hydrobiologia 488 (Developments in Hydrobiology 168).
  9. IUPAC. (2003) Regulatory Limits for Pesticide Residues in water. Pure Appl. Chem. 75(8): 1123-1156.
  10. Kairu J.K. (1994) Pesticide residues in birds at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. International Journal of Salt Lake Research 3: 31-48.
  11. Getenga Z. M., Kengara F. O. & Wandiga S. O. (2004) Determination of organochlorine pesticides in soil and water from river Nyando Drainage System Within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 72 (2): 335-342.
  12. LVEMP. (2001) Study on toxic chemicals/oil products spill contingency plan for Lake Victoria RFP#LVEMP/RCON/003 Volume V of the Toxic Chemical/ Oil Products Spill Contingency Plan "Waste Water Report (2001).
  13. LVEMP. (2002) Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project Phase, Water Quality and Ecosystem Management Component, Preliminary Findings of Studies Conducted on Lake Victoria.
  14. LVEMP. (2003) Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project Phase 1, Rised Draft Scientific Stocking Report- Progress During LVEMP1 and Challenges for the Future, World Bank.
  15. Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Sakai, N. and Tatsukawa, R. (1993) Distribution of persistent organochlorines in the oceanic air and surface seawater and the role of ocean on their global transport and fate. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27: 1080- 1098.
  16. Bintein, S. and Devillers, J. (1996) Evaluating the environmental fate of lindane in France. Chemosphere 32(12):2427-40.
  17. Cornacoff, J.B., Lloyd, D., Lauer, R.V., House, A.N., Tucker, L.M., Turmond, J.G., Vos, P.W. and Dean, J.H. (1988) Evaluation of the immunotoxicity of b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH). Fundam Appl Toxicol 11:293-99.
  18. Deichmann W.B. (1981) Halogenated cyclic hydrocarbons. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 3rd rev. ed., Vol. 2B, G.D. Clayton and F.E. Clayton, Eds. John Wiley and Sons., Inc., NY. p. 3603-3769.
  19. Wandiga S.O. (2001) Use and distribution of organochlorine pesticides. The future in Africa. Pure Appl. Chem. 73 (7): 11471155.
  20. Wandiga S.O., Yugi, M.W., Barasa M.W., Jumba I.O. & Lalah J.O. (2002) The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean Coast of Kenya. Environmental Toxicology, 23. 1235-1246.
  21. Abong’o Debora Atieno, Wandiga Shem Oyoo, Jumba Isaac Ogangu, Van den Brink Paul J., Naziriwo Betty Bbosa, Madadi Vincent Odongo and Wafula Godfrey Angoe, Kylin Henrik, Nkedi- Kizza Peter, (2015) Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River Catchment, Kenya. Africa Journal of Physical Sciences, 2(1) 18-32.
  22. Osoro EM, Wandiga S.O, Abongo DA, Madadi V O and Macharia J W. (2016) Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya. IOSR-JAC. 9 (9): 56-63. EISSN: 2278-5736.
  23. Ormerold S.J. & Tyler S.J. (1993). Birds as indicators of change in water quality. In greenwood, J.J. and R.W. Furness (eds.) Birds as Monitors of Environment Change. Chapman and Hall, London: 179-216.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 5 | July-August 2017
Date of Publication : 2017-08-31
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 139-147
Manuscript Number : IJSRSET173437
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

Vincent O. Madadi, Shem O. Wandiga, Elizabeth N. Ndunda, Kenneth M. Mavuti, " Organochlorine Pesticides Residues In Lake Naivasha Catchment Water, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp.139-147, July-August-2017.
Journal URL :

Article Preview