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Organochlorine Pesticides Residues In Lake Naivasha Catchment Water


Vincent O. Madadi, Shem O. Wandiga, Elizabeth N. Ndunda, Kenneth M. Mavuti
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Lake Naivasha, Kenya, hangs precariously in balance between economic exploitation and biodiversity conservation. There is increasing intensity of horticultural activities around the lake, believed to result in excessive water abstraction and heavy use of agrochemicals. This paper reports the findings of an investigation conducted to determine the extent environmental contamination of 17 organochlorine pesticides including metabolites namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDD, endosulfan I, endosulphan II, endosulphan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, methoxychlor, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and δ-HCH in 36 water samples collected from Lake Naivasha catchment. Residues of varying magnitude and spatial distribution were detected in the samples. The concentrations of α-HCH varied from 0.013-0.776 µg/l, γ-HCH (0.033-0.419 µg/l), β-HCH (0.004-0.059 µg/l), δ-HCH (<0.010-0.059 µg/l), heptachlor (0.571-7.000 µg/l), heptachlor epoxide (0.005-0.177 µg/l), aldrin (0.0050-0.597 µg/l), dieldrin (0.004-0.765 µg/l), endrin (0.005-0.195 µg/l), endrin aldehyde (0.020-0.256 µg/l) endosulphan I (0.020-0.124 µg/l), endosulphan II (<0.002-0.267 µg/l), endosulphan sulphate (<0.008-0.735 µg/l), p,p’-DDT (0.006-0.197 ng/l), p,p’-DDE (0.030-0.588 ng/l), p,p’-DDD (0.018-0.050 ng/l) and  methoxychlor (<0.002-0.891 µg/l), with heptachlor giving the highest overall concentration in most of the sites. The concentration showed wide variations from one sampling site to the other reflecting the socioeconomic diversity around the lake. Total pesticide concentrations in the catchment was in the following order Σheptachlors>Σmethoxychlor>Σaldrins> Σendosulphans>ΣHCHs >ΣDDTs>Σendrins. These results suggest that the occurrence is as a result of use of organoclorine pesticides in the catchment. Concern is therefore raised regarding the possible deleterious effects including endocrine disruption not only in livestock and human population but also wildlife, thus constituting a threat to the ecosystem health around the lake. 

Vincent O. Madadi, Shem O. Wandiga, Elizabeth N. Ndunda, Kenneth M. Mavuti

Lake Naivasha, Organochlorine pesticides residues, water pollution; tropical ecosystems degradation

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Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 5 | July-August - 2017
Date of Publication Print ISSN Online ISSN
2017-08-31 2395-1990 2394-4099
Page(s) Manuscript Number   Publisher
139-147 IJSRSET173437   Technoscience Academy

Cite This Article

Vincent O. Madadi, Shem O. Wandiga, Elizabeth N. Ndunda, Kenneth M. Mavuti, "Organochlorine Pesticides Residues In Lake Naivasha Catchment Water", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp.139-147, July-August-2017.
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