Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya

Authors(4) :-Emily K. Okworo, Vincent O. Madadi, Deborah A. Abong'o, Austin Ochieng

  1. Cairns, T. and Sherma, J., (1992) Emerging Strategies for Pesticide Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  2. Handa, S.K.,Agnihotri,N.P., Kulshrestha,G., (1999) Pesticide Residue Significance,Management and Analysis. New Delhi :research periodical and book publishing House.
  3. WHO, (1990) Public Health impact of pesticide used in Agriculture, Macmillan/ Clays; 4500.
  4. Jolanta, F., Maciej T. and Marek, B., (2011) Properties and determinationof peticides in fruits and vegetables.Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 30(6): 126-129InterdiscipToxicol. Mar 2009; 2(1): 1–12.
  5. Pope, J. V., Skurky-Thomas, M., & Rosen, C. L. (1994) Toxicity: Organochlorine Pesticides, Medscape. Reigart, J.R. and J.R. Roberts. 1999. Recognition and management of pesticide poisoning. Fifth edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA. Pp. 34-38.
  6. Escuderos, M.L., Morenas, M.J. Santos, D., Rubio, B. & Polo, L.M., (2003) Direct determination of monolinum, linuron and chlorbromuron residues in potato samples by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. J. Chromatogr., 1011: 143-153.
  7. World Bank, (2001) Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Stockholm Convention: A Resource Guide Prepared by Resource Futures International for the World Bank and CIDA.
  8. Chiramba,T., Mogoi,S., Martinez, I., (2011) Payment for environmental services pilot project lake Naivasha basin, Kenya a viable mechanism for watershed services that delivers sustainable natural resource management and improved livelihoods. www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/green_economy. Retrieved 24 August 2016
  9. KNBS, (2013) Statistical abstract. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics.Retrieved from https://www.google.co.ke/#q=KNBS+(2013)+.Statistical+abstract.+Kenya+National+Bureau+of+Statistics.1:2 Kenya.
  10. Jolicoeur, J.L.C., (2000) Groundwater contamination potential of agriculture around Lake Naivasha: Comparison of five different unsaturated soil zones. MSc. Thesis International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC) Enschede, The Netherlands.
  11. Vincent O. Madadi, (2017) Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Water and Soil Samples from Kargi Area, Marsabit County, Kenya. IJSRSET 3(5)91-99.
  12. Osoro, E.M., Wandiga S.O., Abongo D.A., Madadi V. O. and Macharia J. W., (2016) Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya. . IOSR-JAC. 9 (9): 56-63. EISSN: 2278-5736.
  13. Yang, R. Q., Lv, A., Shi, J. B., and Jiang, G. B., (2005) The levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from the Haihe River, China. Chemosphere. 61(3):347–354.
  14. ATSDR, (2002) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, G.A, April. p.61.
  15. IUPAC, (2003) Regulatory Limits for Pesticides Residues in Water. Pure appl. Chem. 75(8): 1125-1156.
  16. Codex, (2009) Codex General Standard for Contaminants and toxins in Food and Feed.Codexstandard193-1995. Retrieved fromhttps://www.google.co.ke/#q=Codex,(2009).+Codex+General+Standard+for+Contaminants+nd+toxis+in+Food+and+Feed.+Codex+standard+193-1995.
  17. Yuan, D., Yang, T. L., Wade and Qian, Y., (2001) Status of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Sediment from Sev-eral Estuaries in China. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 114, No. 1,, pp. 101-111. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00200-1.
  18. Wauchope,R.D., Buttler, T.M, Hornsby, A.G., Augustijn, P.W.M, and Burt, J.P., (1992) "SCS/ARS/CES Pesti-cide Properties Database for Environmental Decision Making," Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 123, pp. 1-157.
  19. Cremlyn, R. J. (1991). Agrochemicals Preparation and Mode of Action, John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY, USA.
  20. Vincent O. Madadi, Shem O. Wandiga, Elizabeth N. Ndunda and Kenneth M. Mavuti, (2017) Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment. IJSRSET, 3(5) 139-145.

Authors and Affiliations

Emily K. Okworo
Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box, 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
Vincent O. Madadi
Institute of Climate Change and Adaptation, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi.
Deborah A. Abong'o

Austin Ochieng

Lake Naivasha, Organochlorine pesticide, Water & Soil pollution, Vegetable food contamination

  1. Cairns, T. and Sherma, J., (1992) Emerging Strategies for Pesticide Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  2. Handa, S.K.,Agnihotri,N.P., Kulshrestha,G., (1999) Pesticide Residue Significance,Management and Analysis. New Delhi :research periodical and book publishing House.
  3. WHO, (1990) Public Health impact of pesticide used in Agriculture, Macmillan/ Clays; 4500.
  4. Jolanta, F., Maciej T. and Marek, B., (2011) Properties and determinationof peticides in fruits and vegetables.Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 30(6): 126-129InterdiscipToxicol. Mar 2009; 2(1): 1–12.
  5. Pope, J. V., Skurky-Thomas, M., & Rosen, C. L. (1994) Toxicity: Organochlorine Pesticides, Medscape. Reigart, J.R. and J.R. Roberts. 1999. Recognition and management of pesticide poisoning. Fifth edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA. Pp. 34-38.
  6. Escuderos, M.L., Morenas, M.J. Santos, D., Rubio, B. & Polo, L.M., (2003) Direct determination of monolinum, linuron and chlorbromuron residues in potato samples by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. J. Chromatogr., 1011: 143-153.
  7. World Bank, (2001) Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Stockholm Convention: A Resource Guide Prepared by Resource Futures International for the World Bank and CIDA.
  8. Chiramba,T., Mogoi,S., Martinez, I., (2011) Payment for environmental services pilot project lake Naivasha basin, Kenya a viable mechanism for watershed services that delivers sustainable natural resource management and improved livelihoods. www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/green_economy. Retrieved 24 August 2016
  9. KNBS, (2013) Statistical abstract. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics.Retrieved from https://www.google.co.ke/#q=KNBS + (2013) + .Statistical + abstract. + Kenya + National + Bureau + of + Statistics.1:2 Kenya.
  10. Jolicoeur, J.L.C., (2000) Groundwater contamination potential of agriculture around Lake Naivasha: Comparison of five different unsaturated soil zones. MSc. Thesis International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC) Enschede, The Netherlands.
  11. Vincent O. Madadi, (2017) Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Water and Soil Samples from Kargi Area, Marsabit County, Kenya. IJSRSET 3(5)91-99.
  12. Osoro, E.M., Wandiga S.O., Abongo D.A., Madadi V. O. and Macharia J. W., (2016) Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya. . IOSR-JAC. 9 (9): 56-63. EISSN: 2278-5736.
  13. Yang, R. Q., Lv, A., Shi, J. B., and Jiang, G. B., (2005) The levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from the Haihe River, China. Chemosphere. 61(3):347–354.
  14. ATSDR, (2002) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, G.A, April. p.61.
  15. IUPAC, (2003) Regulatory Limits for Pesticides Residues in Water. Pure appl. Chem. 75(8): 1125-1156.
  16. Codex, (2009) Codex General Standard for Contaminants and toxins in Food and Feed.Codexstandard193-1995. Retrieved fromhttps://www.google.co.ke/#q=Codex,(2009). + Codex + General + Standard + for + Contaminants + nd + toxis + in + Food + and + Feed. + Codex + standard + 193-1995.
  17. Yuan, D., Yang, T. L., Wade and Qian, Y., (2001) Status of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Sediment from Sev-eral Estuaries in China. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 114, No. 1,, pp. 101-111. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00200-1.
  18. Wauchope,R.D., Buttler, T.M, Hornsby, A.G., Augustijn, P.W.M, and Burt, J.P., (1992) "SCS/ARS/CES Pesti-cide Properties Database for Environmental Decision Making," Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 123, pp. 1-157.
  19. Cremlyn, R. J. (1991). Agrochemicals Preparation and Mode of Action, John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY, USA.
  20. Vincent O. Madadi, Shem O. Wandiga, Elizabeth N. Ndunda and Kenneth M. Mavuti, (2017) Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment. IJSRSET, 3(5) 139-145.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 5 | July-August 2017
Date of Publication : 2017-08-31
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 205-213
Manuscript Number : IJSRSET173449
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

Emily K. Okworo, Vincent O. Madadi, Deborah A. Abong'o, Austin Ochieng, " Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp.205-213, July-August-2017.
Journal URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET173449

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