Investigation of a Diesel Engine using Ethyl Levulinate-Diesel Blends

Authors(1) :-Dr. R. Ramachandra

Ethyl levulinate (EL) can be produced from bio-based levulinic acid (LA) and ethanol. Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate and compare the performances and exhaust emission levels of ethyl levulinate as an additive to conventional diesel fuel, with EL percentages of 5%, 10%, 15% (with 2% n-butanol), and 20% (with 5% n-butanol), in a horizontal single-cylinder four stroke diesel engine. Brake-specific fuel consumptions of the EL-diesel blends were about 10% higher than for pure diesel because of the lower heating value of EL. NOx and CO2 emissions increased with engine power with greater fuel injections, but varied with changing EL content of the blends. CO emissions were similar for all of the fuel formulations. Smoke emissions decreased with increasing EL content.

Authors and Affiliations

Dr. R. Ramachandra
Principal & Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SKD Engineering College, Gooty, Andhra Pradesh, India

Ethyl levulinate; Diesel; Performance; Emissions

  1. Balat, M. (2011). "Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production – A review of current work," Energy Convers. Manage. 52(2), 1479-1492.
  2. Barabás, I., Todoru? A., and B?ldean D. (2010). "Performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with diesel–biodiesel–bioethanol blends," Fuel 89(12), 3827-3832.
  3. Buyukkaya, E. (2010). "Effects of biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics," Fuel 89(10), 3099-3105.
  4. Celikten, ?., Koca, A., and Arslan, M. A. (2010). "Comparison of performance and emissions of diesel fuel, rapeseed and soybean oil methyl esters injected at different pressures," Renew. Energy 35(4), 814-820.
  5. Chang, C., Cen, P. L., and Ma, X. J. (2007). "Levulinic acid production from wheat straw," Bioresour. Technol. 98(7), 1448-1453.
  6. Corkwell, K. C., Jackson, M. M., and Daly, D. T. (2003). "Review of exhaust emissions of compression ignition engines operating on E diesel fuel blends," SAE Transactions 112(4), 2638-2653.
  7. Demirbas, A. (2009a). "Biofuels securing the planet’s future energy needs," Energy Convers. Manage. 50(9), 2239-2249.
  8. Demirbas, A. (2009b). "Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels," Energy Convers. Manage. 50(1), 14-34.
  9. Fang, Q., and Hanna, M. A. (2002). "Experimental studies for levulinic acid production from whole kernel grain sorghum," Bioresour. Technol. 81(3), 187-192.
  10. Fitzpatrick, S. W. (1990). "Lignocellulose degradation to furfural and levulinic acid," U.S. Patent 4,897,497.
  11. Fitzpatrick, S.W. (1997). "Production of levulinic acid from carbohydrate-containing materials," U.S. Patent 5,608,105.
  12. Hayes, D. J., Fitzpatrick, S., and Hayes, M. H. B. (2008). "The Biofine process-Production of levulinic acid, furfural, and formic acid from lignocellulosic feedstocks," in: Kamm, B., Gruber, P. R., and Kamm, M. (Eds). Biorefineries-Industrial Processes and Products: Status Quo and Future Directions, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, doi: 10.1002/9783527619849, Chapter 7.
  13. Hayes, M. H. B. (2009). "DIBANET-The production of sustainable diesel-miscible-biofuels from the residues and wastes of Europe and Latin America," http://www.carbolea.ul.ie/DIBANET.html. [accessed July 25, 2011].
  14. Huang, J., Wang, Y., Li S., and Roskilly, A. P. (2009). "Experimental investigation on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with ethanol-diesel blends," Appl. Therm. Eng. 29(11-12), 2484-2490.
  15. Joshi, H., Moser, B. R., and Toler, J. (2011). "Ethyl levulinate: A potential bio-based diluent for biodiesel which improves cold flow properties," Biomass Bioenergy 35(7), 3262-3266.
  16. Kousoulidou, M., Fontaras, G., and Ntziachristos, L. (2010). "Biodiesel blend effects on common-rail diesel combustion and emissions," Fuel 89(11), 3442-3449.
  17. Lange, J. P, Van de Graaf, W. D, and Haan, R. J. (2009). "Conversion of furfuryl alcohol into ethyl levulinate using solid acid catalysts," ChemSusChem 2(5), 437-441.
  18. Lujan, J. M., Bermúdez, V., and Tormos, B. (2009). "Comparative analysis of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends during the European MVEG-A cycle:
  19. Performance and emissions (II)," Biomass Bioenergy 33(6-7), 948-956.
  20. Mascal, M., and Nikitin, E. B. (2009). "Dramatic advancements in the saccharide to 5-(chloromethyl) furfural conversion reaction," ChemSusChem 2(9), 859-861.
  21. Millati, R., Karimi, K., and Edebo, L. (2008). "Ethanol production from xylose and wood hydrolyzate by Mucor indicus at different aeration rates," BioResources 3(4), 1020-1029.
  22. Miyamoto, N., Ogawa, H., and Nurun, N. M. (1998). "Smokeless, low NOx, high thermal efficiency, and low noise diesel combustion with oxygenated agents as main fuel," in: International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI, USA, Session: Diesel Engine Combustion Processes, Paper NO 980506.
  23. Moon, G. F., Lee, Y. Y., and Choi, K. N. (2010). "Emission characteristics of diesel, gas to liquid, and biodiesel-blended fuels in a diesel engine for passenger cars," Fuel 89(12), 3840-3846.
  24. Qi, D. H., Chen, H., and Geng, L. M. (2011). "Effect of diethyl ether and ethanol additives on the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel-diesel blended fuel engine," Renew. Energy 36(4), 1252-1258.
  25. Rakopoulos, C. D., and Giakoumis, E. G. (2009). Diesel Engine Transient Operation-Principles of Operation and Simulation Analysis, Springer, London.
  26. Rakopoulos, D. C., Rakopoulos, C. D., and Giakoumis, E. G. (2010). "Effects of butanol– diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine," Energy Convers. Manage. 51(10), 1989-1997.
  27. Rakopoulos, D. C., Rakopoulos, C. D., and Kakaras, E. C. (2008). "Effects of ethanol– diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine," Energy Convers. Manage. 49(11), 3155-3162.
  28. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J., Tsolakis, A., and Cracknell, R. F. (2009). "Combining GTL fuel, reformed EGR and HC-SCR aftertreatment system to reduce diesel NOx emissions: A statistical approach," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(6), 2789-2799.
  29. Sayin, C. (2010). "Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of methanol and ethanol–diesel blends," Fuel 89(11), 3410-3415.
  30. Sen, S. M., Henao, C. A., and Braden, D. J. (2012). "Catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels: Process development and techno-economic evaluation," Chem. Eng. Sci. 67(1), 57-67.
  31. Article submitted: Sept. 11, 2012; Peer review completed: October 27, 2012; Revised version received and accepted:  October 29, 2012; Published: October 31, 2012.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 2 | Issue 4 | July-August 2016
Date of Publication : 2016-08-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 872-879
Manuscript Number : IJSRSET1736184
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

Dr. R. Ramachandra, " Investigation of a Diesel Engine using Ethyl Levulinate-Diesel Blends, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp.872-879, July-August-2016.
Journal URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET1736184

Article Preview

Follow Us

Contact Us