A Review of Compressed Stabilized Earth Brick as a Sustainable Building Material in Nigeria

Authors(3) :-Abimaje Joshua, Mohd Zin Bin Kandar, Dodo Yakubu Aminu

Compressed stabilized earth brick (CSEB) was reviewed for its sustainability using online data-base. The study revealed among other things that CSEB has less embodied energy compared to most other walling materials. This implies a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like carbon (IV) oxide, carbon (II)oxide, Sulphur (IV) oxide among others. It has good fire resistant property, its environmental responsiveness regarding thermal comfort due to its thermal mass is also another quality that enhances its sustainability. Besides, CSEB can be locally made, and it is socially acceptable. The paper suggested that, although CSEB is a sustainable building material, caution must be taken against inappropriate stabilization. Also, for optimum performance, there should be a good maintenance culture, and it should be used in appropriates places during construction bearing in mind its low tensile strength. These constitute the panacea to the challenges of CSEB.

Authors and Affiliations

Abimaje Joshua
Department of Architecture, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria
Mohd Zin Bin Kandar
Department of Architecture, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Dodo Yakubu Aminu
Department of Architecture, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Compressed, Stabilized Earth Brick, Sustainability, Building Material, Embodied Energy, Nigeria

  1. M.Wackernagel, L. Onisto, P. Bello, A.C. Linares, J.S.L. Falfan, J.M. Gaarcia, A.I. Guerrero, & M.G. Guerrero, ‘’ Analysis national capital accounting with the ecological footprint concept.’’ Ecological Economics, 1998. 29: PP.375-390.
  2. G.P. Marsh, “Man and Nature’’. 1965, Harvard University press.’’
  3. F. Pacheco-Torgal, & S. Jalali, ‘’Earth construction; lessons from the past for future eco-efficient construction’’. Construction and Building Materials, 2012. 29: pp. 512-519.
  4. S.B. Waziri, Z.A. Laan, & M. M. Mala, ‘’Properties of compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB) for low-cost housing construction: A preliminary investigation’’. International Journal of sustainable construction. Engineering & Technology, 2013. 4: 2.
  5. United Nations, ‘’Acting on climate change’’ 2008 the UN system delivering as one.
  6. IPCC Climate Change, ‘’Impact, adaptation and vulnerability’’. 2007, Intergovernmental panel on climate change.
  7. N.S. Stern, ‘’Review on economics of climate change’’. 2006, Cambridge University press.
  8. H. Daly, & J. Cobb, ‘’For the Common Good’’.1989 Beacon press, Beston, pp.482
  9. D. Pearce, A. Markandya, & E. Barbier, ‘’Blue print for a green economy’’. 1989, Earthscan, London.
  10. L. Brown, C. Flavin, & H. French, State of the World, World watch Institute. 1997, W.W. Norton, New York/ London 229. pp
  11. M.N. Anosike, & A.A. Oyebade, (2012). ‘’Sandcrte blocks and quality management in Nigeria’’. Journal of Engineering, Project and Production Management, 2012. 2(1): P. 37-46.
  12. B.V.V. Reddy, & K.S. Jagadish, ‘’Embodied energy of common and alternative building materials and technology’’. Energy and Building, 2003. 35: P. 129-137.
  13. A. Taiwo, and A. Adeboye, ‘’Sustainable housing supply in Nigeria rhough the use of indigenous and composite building materials’’. Journal if civil and environmental research, 2013.3(1):P. 79-84.
  14. The Habitat Agenda: chapter 1: preamble-A/ conf.165:/14(n.d.). http://www.un-documents.net/ha-1.htm retrieved on18 October 2017.
  15. E.E. Oshike, ‘’Building with earth in Nigeria: a review of the past and present efforts to enhance future housing development’’. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 2015. 4 (1): P.646-660.
  16. H. Omrany, A. Ghaffarianhoseini, A. Ghaffarianhosei, K. Raahemifar, & J. Tookey, ‘’Application of passive wall systems for improving the energy efficiency in buildings: A comprehensive review’’. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 2016. 62: P. 1252-1269.
  17. L. Yang, H. Yan, & J.C. Lam, ‘’Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications- a review’’. Applied Energy, 2014. 115: P. 164-173.
  18. M. S. Alrubaih, M.F.M. Zain, M.A. Alghoul, N.N. Ibrahim, M.A. Shameri, and O. Elayeb, ‘’Research and development aspects of daylighting fundamentals’’. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2013. 2: P. 494-505
  19. A. Costa, M.M. Keane, J.I. Torrens, & E. Corry, ‘’Building operation and energy performance: Monitoring analysis and optimisation toolkit’’. Applied Energy, 2013. 101: p. 310-316.
  20. N.B. Geetha, and R. Velraji, ‘’Passive cooling methods for energy efficient buildings with and without thermal energy storage- A Review’’. Energy Education Science and Technology Part A’’. Energy Science and Research, 2012. 29(2): P.913-946.
  21. M. Kavgic, A. Mavrogianni, D. Mumovic,. A. Summerfield, Z. Stevanovic. and M. Djurovic-petrovic, M ‘’A review of bottom-up building stock models for energy consumption in the residential sector’’. Building and Environment, 2010: 45(7): P. 1683-1697.
  22. N. Huberman, and D. Pearlmutter, ‘’A life-cycle energy analysis of building materials in the Negev desert’’. Energy and Buildings, 40(5): P. 837-848.
  23. C. Scheuer, G.A. Keoleian, & P. Reppe, ‘’Life cycle energy and environmental performance of a new University Building: Modelling challenges and design implication’’. Energy and building, 35(10): P. 1049-1064.
  24. N.H. Wong, D.W. Cheong, H. Yan, J. Soh, C.L. Ong, & A. Sia, ‘’The effects of a rooftop garden on energy consumption of a commercial building in Singapore’’. Energy and Buildings. 35 (4): P. 353-364.
  25. M. Asif, & T. Muneer, ‘’Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies.’’ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2007. 11 (7): P. 1388-1413.
  26. LANCASHIRE, D.S. & FFOX, A.E. Lighting: the way to building efficiency. 1996. Consulting-specifying engineers, P. 34-36.
  27. S. Krishnaiah, and R.P. Suryanarayana,’’Effects of clay on soil cement block.’’ The 12th International Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Advances I Geomechanics (ICMAG),2012 India, PP. 4362-4368.
  28. S. Deboucha, & R. Hashim, ‘’A review on brick and stabilized compressive earth blocks’’. Research and Essays, 2011. 6 (3): P.499-506.
  29. A.Y.B. Anifowose, ‘’Stabilization of lateritic soils as a raw material for building block.’’ Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 2000. 58: P.151-157.
  30. M. Janz, and S.E. Johanssan, S.E. The function of different building agents in deep stabilization, ‘’Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre, 2002. Linkoping.
  31. A. Guettala, H. Houari, B. Mezghiche, and R. Chebili, ‘’Durability if lime stabilized earth blocks.’’ Courrier du savair, 2002. 2: P. 61-66.
  32. A. Mesbah, J.C. Morel, P. Walker, and K. Ghavami, (2004). ‘’Development of a Direct Tensile Test for compacted Earth Block Reinforced with Natural fibres.’’ Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2004. 16(1): P. 95-98.
  33. V.R. Fetra, I.A. Rahman, and A.M. Zaidi, ‘’Preliminary study of compressive stabilized earth block (CESB).’’ Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2011. 5(9): P. 6-12.
  34. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Our common future. 1987: Oxford, England:Oxford University
  35. P.S. Okerere, ‘’The use of sustainable materials and equipment for construction process. In proceedings, Thirty-six Annual General Meeting of the Nigerian Institute of Builders; sustainable Development and the Built Environment, 2006: Jos. Nigeria. P. 13-18.
  36. R.H. Crowford, & G.J. Treoar, An assessment of the energy and water embodied in commercial building construction, 4th Australian L.C.A. Conference, 2005: Sedney.
  37. I.Z. Bribian, A.V. Capilla, and A.A. Uson, ‘’Life cycle assessment of building materials: Comparative analysis of energy and environmental impacts and evaluation of the eco-efficiency improvement.’’ Building and Environment 46: 1133-1140.
  38. S. Deboucha, and R. Hashim, ‘’Effects of POC and PFA Cement on stabilised peat Bricks’’. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2010. 5(11): P.1671.
  39. E.A. Adam, & A.R.A. Agib, Compressed stabilized earth block manufacturing in Sudan. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2001. France, Paris.
  40. C. Jayasinghe, & R.S. Mallawaarachchi, ‘’Flexural strength of compressed stabilized earth masonry materials.’’ Material and Design, 2009. 30 (9): P. 3859-3868.
  41. S.B. Waziri, Z.A. Laan, & M.M. Mala, ‘’Properties of compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB) for low-cost housing construction: A preliminary investigation.International Journal of sustainable construction.’’ Engineering & Technology, 2013. 4: 2.
  42. Hadjri, K.; Osman, M.; Boriche, B.; & Chifunda, C. (2007). Attitudes towards earth building of Zambian housing provision. Proceedings of the institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability, 16 (3) pp. 141-149.
  43. Hughes, R. (1983). Materials and behaviour of social constructed walls. In Technique and Materials. London, England.
  44. R.L. Fullerton, Building construction in warm climates. Vol. 1, 2 and 3. Oxford Tropical Handbooks. 1979. Oxford University press. Oxford University, England.
  45. M.J.D. Carmen, & C.G. Ignacio, ‘’Earth building in Spain.’’ Construction and building materials, 2006. P. 679-790.
  46. F.O. Ogunye, & H. Boussabaine, ‘’Diagnosis of assessment methods for weatherability of stabilized compressed soil blocks.’’ Construction and Building Materials, 2002.16(3): P. 163- 172
  47. International Labour Organisation (ILO), Small-scale manufacture of stabilized soil blocks, 1987, P. 204.
  48. htt://www.gismania.com(talk)topic305271.0htm/#,WddE51Yvik.googl.
  49. J. Morel, A. Pkla, A. & P. Walker, ‘’Compressive strength testing of compressed earth blocks.’’ Construction and Building Materials, 2007. 2:303-309.
  50. P. Egbert, ‘’Status and development issues of the brick industry in Asia.’’The regional wood-energy development programme (RWEDP) 1993. Asia, P. 30-34.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 6 | September-October 2017
Date of Publication : 2017-11-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 827-834
Manuscript Number : IJSRSET1736194
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

Abimaje Joshua, Mohd Zin Bin Kandar, Dodo Yakubu Aminu, " A Review of Compressed Stabilized Earth Brick as a Sustainable Building Material in Nigeria, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp.827-834, September-October.2017
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET1736194

Follow Us

Contact Us