In vitro Studies on the Effect of Ethanol Extract of Trachyspermum Ammi on Lactate Dehydrogenase of Haemonchus Contortus

Authors(2) :-S. Sathish Kumar, Dr. L. Veerakumari

Gastro intestinal helminth infections is a major threat to small ruminant production. Haemonchous contortus is a nematode that feeds on blood of small ruminants and causes anemia, anorexia and eventually leads to death. Anthelmintic drugs are used to treat helminth infection for control of the parasitic diseases. The problem of the development of resistance against the common chemical anthelmintics has renewed the interest in the study of medicinal plants for the development of herbal anthelmintics. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) a glycolytic enzyme plays a key role in the carbohydrate metabolism of the parasites. It catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to lactate and oxidation of lactate to pyruvate. In the present investigation anthelmintic efficacy of ethanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi (TaEE) on LDH of the nematode H. contortus was studied in vitro.  The worms were exposed to five different sub-lethal concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1%) of ethanol extract of T. ammi (TaEE), which significantly inhibited the LDH activity catalyzing both oxidation of lactate and reduction of pyruvate. Inhibition of LDH activity increased with an increase in the drug concentration and the period of exposure. Hindrance in LDH activity reduce the level of ATP production which affects the physiological functions of the parasite and ultimately leads to death of the worms.

Authors and Affiliations

S. Sathish Kumar
Ph.D Research scholar, PG and Research, Department of Zoology, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. L. Veerakumari
Associate Professor and Head (Retd.), PG and Research Department of Zoology, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Haemonchous Contortus, Trachyspermum Ammi, Lactate Dehydrogenase.

  1. Bairwa, R., Sodha, R. S., and Rajawat, B. S. 2012. Trachyspermum ammi. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 6(11), 56-60.
  2. Bentounsi, B., Trad, R., Gaous, N., Kohil, K. and Cabaret, J. 2006. Gastrointestinal nematode resistance to benzimidazoles on a sheep farm in Algeria. Vet Record, 158: 634-635.
  3. Chahal, K. K., Dhaiwal, K., Kumar, A., Kataria, D. and Singla, N. 2017. Chemical composition of Trachyspermum ammi L. and its biological properties: A review. J. of Pharmaco. and Phytochem. 6(3): 131-140.
  4. Dwivedi S.N., Mishra, R.P., and Sangeeta Alava. 2012. Phytochemistry, pharmacological studies and traditional benefits of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague. Int. J. of Pharm. and Life Sci. 3(5), 1705-1709.
  5. Faostat. 2014. Farming and Agriculture statistics. The top 5 countries with the Sheep.
  6. Fry, M., Bazil, C., and Jenkins, D.C. 1983. A comparison of mitochondrial electron transport in the intestinal parasitic nematodes Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Ascardia galli. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 75B, 451-453.
  7. Gupta, S. 2002. Handbook of spices and packaging with formulas. Engineers India Research Institute. (p. 277).
  8. Hamad, K.K., Iqbal, Z., ZuD Sindhu and Muhammad, G. 2013. Antinematicidal activity of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf extracts to control benzimidazole-resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Pak Vet J, 33: 85-90.
  9. Hammond, J. A., Fielding, D. and Bishop, S.C., 1997. Fielding D, Bishop SC. Prospects for plant anthelmintics in tropical veterinary medicine. Vet. Res. Com., 21, 213-228.
  10. Jasra, N., Sanyal, S. N. and Khera, S., 1990.Effect of Thiabendazole and Fenbendazole on Glucose Uptake and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Trichuris Globulosa. Vet. Parasitol., 35: 201-209.
  11. Kaur, R. and Sood, M. L. 1983. Review article. Carbohydrate metabolism in Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae). Ind. J. Parasite. 7, 125-132.
  12. Keyyu, J. D., Mahingika, H. M., Magwisha, H. B. and Kassuku, A. A. 2002. Efficacy of albendazole and levamisole against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats. Trop Anim Health Prod, 34: 115-120.
  13. Lateef, M., Iqbal, Z., Akhtar, M.S., Jabbar, A., Khan, M.N., and Gilani, A.H. 2006. Priliminary Screening of Trachyspermum ammi seed for anthelmintic activity in sheep. Trop Anim health Prod, 38(6), 491-496.
  14. Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem, 193, 265-275.
  15. Moon, T. W., Hulbert, W.C., Mustafa, T. and Mettrick, D. F., 1977. A study of lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in adult Hymenolepis diminuta (cestoda). Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 56B: 249-254.
  16. Priya, P. and Veerakumari, L., 2011. In vitro effect of Acacia concinna on the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism of Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Fischoeder, 1901). Biomed., 31 (3): 329-333.
  17. Srivastava, J. K., Gupta, S. and Katiyar, J. C., 1989. Effects of methyl [5[4-(2-pyridinyl)- 1-piperazinyl] carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl] carbamate on energy metabolism of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Ind. J. Expt. Biol., 27: 735-738.
  18. Swargiary, A., Roy, B., Giri, B. R. and Rohang, B., 2013. A comparative study on the anthelmintic efficacy of some medicinal plants of North-East India: alteration in the glycolytic enzymes of Fasciola buski, a giant intestinal fluke. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med., 412-420.
  19. Tamurab, T., and Iwamoto, H. 2004. Thymol-A classical small molecule compound that has a dual effect (Potentiating and inhibitory on myosin. Bioche. and Biophy. Res. Com. 18, 786-789.
  20. Veerakumari, L. and Lakshmi, K. N., 2006. In vitro effect of Allium sativum on lactate dehydragenase activity of Haemonchus contortus. J. Vet. Parasitol., 20: pp. 93-96.
  21. Veerakumari, L. and Munuswamy, N., 2000. In vitro effect of some anthelmintics on lactate dehydrogenase activity of Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Digenea: Paramphistomidae). Vet. Parasitol., 91: 129-140.
  22. Veerakumari, L., and Navaneetha Lakshmi. 2004. In vitro effect of Andrographis paniculata on lactate dehydrogenase activity of Haemonchus contorus (Nematode: Trichostrongylidae). National conference on Futuristic Biosciences and Research. Holy cross college, Tiruchi - 620002.
  23. Veerakumari, L., and Navaneetha Lakshmi. 2006. In vitro effect of Allium sativum on lactate dehydrogenase activity of Haemonchus contorus. J. of Vet. Parasitol. 20(1), 93-96.
  24. Veerakumari, L., 1996. In vitro studies on the effect of some anthelmintics on Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Fischoeder, 1901) (Digenea: Paramphistomidae). A structural and biochemical analysis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Madras. Chennai.
  25. Von Brand, T. 1974. The biochemistry of helminthes. Zeitschrift fur. Prasitekunde 45, 109-124.
  26. Yoshida, A., and Freese, E. 1975. Lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis. In: W.A. Wood (Ed.), Methods in enzymology (Vol. XLI, p. 304). New York: Academic press.
  27. Zaman, M. A., Iqbal, N., Khan, M. N. and Muhammad, G. 2012. Anthelmintic activity of an herbal formulation against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Pak Vet J, 32: 117-121.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 8 | November-December 2017
Date of Publication : 2017-12-31
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 750-753
Manuscript Number : IJSRSET1738206
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

S. Sathish Kumar, Dr. L. Veerakumari, " In vitro Studies on the Effect of Ethanol Extract of Trachyspermum Ammi on Lactate Dehydrogenase of Haemonchus Contortus , International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 8, pp.750-753, November-December-2017.
Journal URL :

Article Preview

Follow Us

Contact Us