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Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya


Masese F. A., Wandiga S.O., Madadi V.O., Mbui D. N.
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In Kenya, water scarcity is a major issue due to destruction of water catchment, poor management of water supply and contamination of national water resources. The government’s long-term objective is to ensure that all citizens have access to safe drinking water. Although the government has increased the budget for improving access to water, many citizens still do not have access to potable water. The study analysed contaminants from selected sources of domestic water in the counties of Machakos, Nakuru, Kiambu and Nairobi. The following physico-chemical parameters were investigated – pH, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), anions (Cl- and PO43-), E. Coli and total coliforms. Water samples were collected from eight sampling sites in dry and wet seasons and analysed following standard methods. pH values varied from 6.3 – 9.1 in the dry season, and 6.9 – 9.5 in the wet season, conductivity from 244.0 – 5758.0 µS/cm in the dry season and 141.0 – 2004.0 µS/cm in the wet season, TDS from 113.0 – 5,824.0 mg/L in the dry season and 82.0 – 183.0 in the wet season, temperature from 24.1 – 25.2˚C in the dry season and 25.3 – 25.8˚C in the wet season, TSS from 0.00 – 0.01 mg/L in the dry season and 0.01 – 0.02 mg/L in the wet season, COD from 112.0 – 255.0 mg/L in the dry season and 90.6 – 154.0 mg/L in the wet season, DO varied from 2.8 – 4.2 mg/L in the dry season and 3.1 – 4.2 mg/L in the wet season, nitrates from 2.5 – 19.6 ppm, phosphates from 0.03 – 2.24 mg/L, while E. Coli varied from 13 – 4,300 CFU/ml. The values obtained for most parameters were within WHO and National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) guidelines for domestic water, except for two sites (Athi River and Portland), where pH, TDS and conductivity exceeded the guidelines. Most sites had biological contamination indicating anthropogenic contamination, rendering water unsafe. The water needs to be decontaminated to safeguard human health.

Masese F. A., Wandiga S.O., Madadi V.O., Mbui D. N.

Domestic water quality, Physico-chemical parameters, Nutrient levels and Biological contamination

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Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 8 | November-December - 2017
Date of Publication Print ISSN Online ISSN
2017-12-31 2395-1990 2394-4099
Page(s) Manuscript Number   Publisher
193-198 IJSRSET173831   Technoscience Academy

Cite This Article

Masese F. A., Wandiga S.O., Madadi V.O., Mbui D. N., "Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 8, pp.193-198, November-December-2017.
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