IJSRSET calls volunteers interested to contribute towards the scientific development in the field of Science, Engineering and Technology

Home > IJSRSET173831                                                     


Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya

Authors(4):

Masese F. A., Wandiga S.O., Madadi V.O., Mbui D. N.
  • Abstract
  • Authors
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Details
In Kenya, water scarcity is a major issue due to destruction of water catchment, poor management of water supply and contamination of national water resources. The government’s long-term objective is to ensure that all citizens have access to safe drinking water. Although the government has increased the budget for improving access to water, many citizens still do not have access to potable water. The study analysed contaminants from selected sources of domestic water in the counties of Machakos, Nakuru, Kiambu and Nairobi. The following physico-chemical parameters were investigated – pH, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), anions (Cl- and PO43-), E. Coli and total coliforms. Water samples were collected from eight sampling sites in dry and wet seasons and analysed following standard methods. pH values varied from 6.3 – 9.1 in the dry season, and 6.9 – 9.5 in the wet season, conductivity from 244.0 – 5758.0 µS/cm in the dry season and 141.0 – 2004.0 µS/cm in the wet season, TDS from 113.0 – 5,824.0 mg/L in the dry season and 82.0 – 183.0 in the wet season, temperature from 24.1 – 25.2˚C in the dry season and 25.3 – 25.8˚C in the wet season, TSS from 0.00 – 0.01 mg/L in the dry season and 0.01 – 0.02 mg/L in the wet season, COD from 112.0 – 255.0 mg/L in the dry season and 90.6 – 154.0 mg/L in the wet season, DO varied from 2.8 – 4.2 mg/L in the dry season and 3.1 – 4.2 mg/L in the wet season, nitrates from 2.5 – 19.6 ppm, phosphates from 0.03 – 2.24 mg/L, while E. Coli varied from 13 – 4,300 CFU/ml. The values obtained for most parameters were within WHO and National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) guidelines for domestic water, except for two sites (Athi River and Portland), where pH, TDS and conductivity exceeded the guidelines. Most sites had biological contamination indicating anthropogenic contamination, rendering water unsafe. The water needs to be decontaminated to safeguard human health.

Masese F. A., Wandiga S.O., Madadi V.O., Mbui D. N.

Domestic water quality, Physico-chemical parameters, Nutrient levels and Biological contamination

  1. Ahuja Satinder, (2016). 'Chemistry and Water: The Science behind Sustaining the World's most Crucial Resource', 1st Edition, Elsevier Inc. Pp 259-00.
  2. Shannon, M.A., Bohn, P.W., Elimelech, M., Geogiardis, J.G., Marinas, B.J. and Mayes, A.M. (2008), 'Cleaning up Water', Nature Materials, 7(5):341.
  3. FAO & UN. (2012). 'Coping with Water Scarcity: An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security'. FAO publications, Pp 5 ' 12.
  4. Berger, M. (2008). 'Nanotechnology and Water Treatment: Nanotechnology's Promises and Economic Reality, Pp 1 ' 5.
  5. WHO & UNICEF, (2006). 'Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade.' Pp 17.
  6. WHO & UNICEF, (2010). 'Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water- 2010 Update 'UN-Water'. Pp 1 ' 47.
  7. Ngaira, K. W. J. (2009). Challenges of Water Resource Management and Food Production in a Changing Climate in Kenya. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning 2 (4): 97-103.
  8. Nelly, (2007). 'A Rapid Assessment of Kenya's Water, Sanitation and Sewerage Framework Institute of Economic Affairs'. Pp 18 ' 20.
  9. Odira, M.A.P. (2011). 'Challenges in Water Sanitation Services Provision in Kenya'. Pp 13 ' 150.
  10. Kippra, (2017). 'Kenya Economic Report 2017: Sustaining Kenya's Economic Development by Deepening and Expanding Economic Integration in the Region'. Pp. 78-84.
  11. Marshall, S. (2011). 'The Water Crisis in Kenya: Causes, Effects and Solutions', Global Majority E-Journal, 2(1): 31 ' 34.
  12. Adetunde, L.A. and Glover, R.L.K. (2010). 'Bacteriological quality of bore hole water used by students of University for Development Studies, Navrongo Campus in Upper - East Region of Ghana', Current Research of Biological Sciences, 2(6): 361 ' 365.
  13. Shadrack, M.K. (2012). 'Effects of Sediment Loads on Water Quality within the Nairobi River Basin, Kenya', International Journal of Environmental Protection, 2(6): 16-20.
  14. Mokaya, S.K., Mathooko, J.M. and Maria, L. (2005). 'Influence of Anthropogenic activities on water quality of tropical stream ecosystem', Article DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2004.00521.x
  15. Shivonga WA, Muchiri M, Kibichi S, Odanga J, Miller SN, Baldyga TJ, Gichaba CM. (2005). Impact of land use on water quality in River Njoro Watershed, Kenya.". In: XX International Grassland Congress: Offered Papers. Wageningen- Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
  16. Madadi, V.O., Ngotho, M.W. and Masese, F.A. (2017). 'Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya'. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(6): 5-11.
  17. Ondiere, V.B. (2016). 'Assessment of Physico-chemical parameters, nutrients, fluorides, pesticides and selection heavy metals contamination in lake elementaita drainage basin'.MSc Thesis, Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi.
  18. Tallon, P., Magajna, B., Lofranco, C. and Leung, K.T. (2005). 'Microbial indicators of faecal contamination in water: A current perspective'. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 166: 139-166
  19. ]WHO & UNEP, (1997). 'Water Pollution Control: A Guide to the use of water quality management principles'.1st Edition, E. & FN Spon. Pp 1-29.
  20. Kithiia, S.M. (2012). 'Water Quality degradation Trends in Kenya over the Last Decade'.Intech publishers. Pp 510 https://www.intechopen.com/download/pdf/35067
  21. Masese, F.A. (2010). 'Investigation of Pollutants, Determination of Physico-chemical Characteristics of the Nairobi River and Remediation of some toxic heavy metals using Fish Bones'. MSc Theses, Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi. Pp. 27-28.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 3 | Issue 8 | November-December - 2017
Date of Publication Print ISSN Online ISSN
2017-12-31 2395-1990 2394-4099
Page(s) Manuscript Number   Publisher
193-198 IJSRSET173831   Technoscience Academy

Cite This Article

Masese F. A., Wandiga S.O., Madadi V.O., Mbui D. N., "Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 3, Issue 8, pp.193-198, November-December-2017.
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET173831.php