IJSRSET calls volunteers interested to contribute towards the scientific development in the field of Science, Engineering and Technology

Home > IJSRSET184836                                                     

Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Generation ; Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) : A Review


P. V. Dholakia
  • Abstract
  • Authors
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Details
In the present scenario of growing population and their increase in the consumption of energy, it is wise to explore and establish alternatives and clean sources of energy. Crude petroleum is a primary resource that fulfils the need of the ever growing population, but its exploration cannot be in same rate with the increasing consumption and volatile prices. The geothermal power industry has been experiencing steady growth and support around the world with governments keen to find a cheap and sustainable source of abundant energy. This support could see the geothermal industry take off during the upcoming decade in the same way as the wind and solar industries boomed in the last decade. Geothermal power emits virtually no CO2 or pollutants which catches the eye of the world. Therefore it is considered as an ideal alternative energy source. Such a source of geothermal energy can be best harnessed using Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). ORC is the standard process for low temperature energy conversion .India is lacking experience in the design and manufacturing of low temperature geothermal ORC plants. One proposed method to develop this experience is to understand the design process of existing low temperature geothermal ORCs. A qualitative and a thematic analysis of ORC projects around the world can highlight the common steps involved in their development and patterns in data, which could help to identify the common processes involved in these projects. The research material available from CEGE and the various companies which are providing service in parts to ORC will be organized into: prospecting, conceptual design and plant feasibility, detailed design, and construction. These steps are the important stages in ORC development, based on the research till now. The outcome of this analysis will help to establish a guideline for developing ORCs. The number of case studies required to develop robust guidelines is unknown; however, once clear patterns and similar steps emerge from a number of case studies that should be sufficient to finalise the proposed guidelines. The focus of the present article is to develop an ORC in Indian Climatic Condition. The goal of the project is to provide electricity in rural areas and developing countries with this system. This system can be manufactured locally Centre of Excellence for Geothermal Energy (CEGE) at the Gujarat-based Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU) has found success by drilling the state's first geothermal bore well in Dholera Hot water up to 50 degrees Celsius to 55 degrees Celsius temperature gushing out from 272m deep drilled well at an unexpected flow rate of five liters a second, which can be used to harness electricity using ORC. So, the final objective is to generate possible electricity and develop a guideline that industries will adopt for their own ORC projects and eventually encourage development of the low temperature geothermal design standard.

P. V. Dholakia

PDPU, CEGE, Organic Rankine Cycle, Carnot Efficiency, Twin Screw Expander

  1. Bosnjakovic, F., 1965. Technical Thermodynamics. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 489–509 (Trans. P.L. Blackshear Jr.).
  2. DiPippo, R., Marcille, D.F., 1984. Exergy analysis of geothermal power plants. Geothermal Res. Council Trans. 8, 47–52. DiPippo, R., 1980a.
  3. Geothermal Energy as a Source of Electricity. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/RA/28320-1, pp. 172–176. DiPippo, R., 1980b.
  4. Geothermal Energy as a Source of Electricity. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/RA/28320-1, pp. 176–177. DiPippo, R., 1987.
  5. Exergy analysis of combined electricity and direct-heat geothermal flash-steam plants. Geothermal Res. Council Trans. 11, 411–416. DiPippo, R., 1994.
  6. Second Law analysis of flash-binary and multilevel binary geothermal power plants. Geothermal Res. Council Trans. 18, 505–510. Ettinger, T., Brugman, J., 1992.
  7. Brad1y Hot Springs geothermal power plant. Geothermal Res. Council Bull. 21 (8), 258–260. GRC Bulletin, 1993.
  8. New geothermal facility exceeds production expectations. Geothermal Res. Council Bull. 22 (10), 281–282. Kalina, A.I., Liebowitz, H.M., 1989.
  9. Hettiarachchi HDM, Golubovic M, Worek WM, et al. Optimum design criteria for an Organic Rankine Cycle using low- and medium-temperature geothermal heat sources. Energy 2007;32:1698–706.
  10. Tamamoto T, Furuhata T, Arai N, Mori K. Design and testing of the organic Rankine cycle. Energy 2001;26:239–51.
  11. Nafey AS, Sharaf MA. Combined solar Organic Rankine Cycle with reverse osmosis desalination process: energy, exergy, and cost evaluations. Renew Energy 2010.doi:10.1016/j.renene.2010.03.03.
  12. Heberle F, Brüggemann D. Exergy based fluid selection for a geothermal Organic Rankine Cycle for combined heat and power generation. Appl Therm Eng 2010;30:1326–32.
  13. Dai YP, Wang JF, Gao L. Parametric optimization and comparative study of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery. Energy Convers Manage 2009;50:576–82.
  14. Aleksandra BG, Wladyslaw N. Maximising the working fluid flow as a way of increasing power output of geothermal power plant. Appl Therm Eng 2007;27:2074–8.
  15. Gu W, Weng Y, Wang Y, Zheng B. Theoretical and experimental investigation of an Organic Rankine Cycle for a waste heat recovery system. Proc Inst Mech Eng, Part A: J Power Energy 2009;223(5):523–33.
  16. Mago PJ, Chamra LM, Somayaji C. Performance analysis of different working fluids for use in organic Rankin cylces. Proc Inst Mech Eng 2007;221:255–354.
  17. Hung TC, Wang SK, Kuo CH, Pei BS, Tsai KF. A study of organic working fluids on system efficiency of an ORC using low-grade energy sources. Energy 2010;35:1403–11.
  18. Chen H et al. A review of thermodynamic cycles and working fluids for the conversion of low-grade heat. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2010. doi:10.1016/ j.rser.2010.07.00.
  19. Li J, Pei G, Ji J. Optimization of low temperature solar thermal electric generation with Organic Rankine Cycle in different areas. Appl Energy 2010;87:3355–65.
  20. Maizza V, Maizza A. Unconventional working fluids in organic Rankine-cycles for waste energy recovery systems. Appl Therm Eng 2001;21:381–90.
  21. Gu ZL, Sato H. Optimization of cyclic parameters of a supercritical cycle for geothermal power generation. Energy Convers Manage 2001;42:1409–16.
  22. Schuster A et al. Efficiency optimization potential in supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles. Energy 2009. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.06.01.
  23. Karellas S, Schuster A. Supercritical fluid parameters in organic rankine cycle applications. Int J Thermodynam 2008;11(3):101–8.
  24. Gu ZL, Sato H. Performance of supercritical cycles for geothermal binary design. Energy Convers Manage 2002;43:961–71.
  25. Cayer E, Galanis N, Nesreddine H. Parametric study and optimization of a transcritical power cycle using a low temperature source. Appl Energy 2010;87:1349–57.
  26. Gawlik K. Advanced binary cycles: optimum working fluids. Energy Convers Eng Conf 1997.
  27. Quoilin S, Lemort V, Lebrun J. Experimental study and modeling of an Organic Rankine Cycle using scroll expander. Appl Energy 2010;87:1260–8.
  28. Schuster A, Karellas S, Aumann R. Efficiency optimization potential in supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles. Energy 2009. doi:10.1016/j.energy. 2009.06.01.
  29. Kanoglu M, Bolatturk A. Performance and parametric investigation of a binary geothermal power plant by exergy. Renew Energy 2008;33:2366–74.
  30. Kanoglu M. Exergy analysis of a dual-level binary geothermal power plant. Geothermics 2002;31:709–24.
  31. DiPippo R. Second law assessment of binary plants generating power from low-temperature geothermal fluids. Geothermics 2004;33:565–86.
  32. Yari M. Exergetic analysis of various types of geothermal power plants. Renew Energy 2010;35:112–21.
  33. Papadopoulos AI, Stijepovic M, Linke P. On the systematic design and selection of optimal working fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles. Appl Therm Eng 2010;30:760–9.
  34. Bliem C, Zangrando F, Hassani V. Value analysis of advanced heat rejection systems for geothermal power plants. Energy Conver Eng Conf 1996.
  35. Petukhov BS, Krasnoshchekov EA, Protopopov VS. An investigation of heat transfer to fluids flowing in pipes under supercritical conditions. In: International developments in heat transfer, papers presented at the 1961 international heat transfer conference, January 8–12, Part III, Paper 67, ASME. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA; 1961. p. 569–78.
  36. Kyoung-Ho Kang, Soon-Heung Chang. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics during the pressure transients under supercritical pressures. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2009;52:4946–55.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 1 | Issue 1 | November-December - 2014
Date of Publication Print ISSN Online ISSN
2014-01-30 2395-1990 2394-4099
Page(s) Manuscript Number   Publisher
141-145 IJSRSET184836   Technoscience Academy

Cite This Article

P. V. Dholakia, "Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Generation ; Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) : A Review", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp.141-145, November-December-2014.
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET184836.php