IJSRSET calls volunteers interested to contribute towards the scientific development in the field of Science, Engineering and Technology

Home > IJSRSET184882                                                     

Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya


Edna M. Masenge, Shem O. Wandiga, Paul M. Shiundu, Vincent O. Madadi
  • Abstract
  • Authors
  • Keywords
  • References
  • Details
Unsustainable industrial development has created negative impacts to global ecosystem quality and biodiversity due to increased load of chemical and biological contaminants released into environment. Ecological sustainability of Nairobi River Basin in Kenya, hangs in the balance between socioeconomic exploitation and environmental management. Nairobi, Ngong and Mathare rivers constitute the three main tributaries of Nairobi River Basin. The basin has witnesssed increased pollution load, destruction of the wetlands and encroachment of the buffer zones due to rapid urbanisation. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contamination in Mathare and Ngong rivers. We collected water  from eight sampling sites constituting the upstream, midstream and downstream of the two rivers. The samples were extracted using HPLC grade dichloromathane and analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) using a Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionisation Detector. TPH in Mathare River ranged from 59.66±8.64 to 463.92±2.63 µg/L, whereas levels in Ngong’ River ranged from 11.85±0.10 to 1,219.95 µg/L. The concentration increased downstream indicating the influence of industrial and urbanistion on the pollution load. The results suggest that industries and municipal activities in the City are contributing to TPH contamination in the Nairobi River Basin tributaries and therefore they are likely to jeopardize  ecological quality of the rivers ecosystems if protective measures are not taken.

Edna M. Masenge, Shem O. Wandiga, Paul M. Shiundu, Vincent O. Madadi

Nairobi River Basin, Ngong River, Mathare River, TPH, Water Pollution

  1. Carine, S.S., Icaro, T.A., Olivia, M.C., Antonio, F.S., Karina, S.G., Brunno, A.F., Narayana, F.C., & Mariana, C.R., (2014). Spatial distribution and concentration assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal zonesurface sediment of Todos Os Santos Bay,Brazil. Environ Monit Assess, 186, 271-1280.
  2. Teng, Y.G., Feng, D., Song, L.T., Wang, J.S., & Li, J. (2013). Total petroleum hydrocarbon distribution in soils and groundwater in Songyuan oilfield, Northeast China. Environ Monit Assess 185, 9559-9569.
  3. Li, J.H., Zhang, J.T., Lu, Y., Chen, Y.Q., Dong, S.S (2012) Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in agricultural soils near a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China. Environ Monit Assess 184:281–287
  4. Carina, P., Catarina, M. and Paula, G. (2011) Evaluation of the Actual Standard Procedures for Analysis of Total Extractable Hydrocarbons in Environmental Water Matrices. Desalination Journal 273: 308–315.
  5. Gomez, F. & Sartaj, M. (2014). Optimisation of field scale biopiles of bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil at low temperature conditions by response surface methodology. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 89, 103-109.
  6. Gomez, F., & Sartaj, M., (2013). Field exsitu bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil under cold climate conditions. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 85, 240-382.
  7. Joo, C., Shim, W.J., Kim, G.B., Ha, S.Y., Kim, M., An, J.G., Kim, E., Kim, B., Jung, S.W., Kim, Y.O., & Yim, U.H. (2013). Mesocosm study on weathering characteristics of Iranian crude oil with and without dispersant. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 248-249, 37-46.
  8. Riccardi, C., DiFilippo, P., Pomata, D., Incoronato, F., DiBasilio, M., Papini, M.P., & Spicaglia, S. (2008). Characterization and distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in groundwater from three Italian Tank Farms. Science of the Total Environment 393, 50-63.
  9. Pawlak, Z., Raukyte, T., & Oloyede,A. (2008). Oil,grease and used petroleum oil management and environmental economic issues. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 26, 11-17.
  10. Laskova, T., Zabukas, V., & Vaitiekunas, P. (2007). Influence of meteorological conditions on volatile organic compounds spread in the atmospheric boundary layer. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 15, 135-143.
  11. Paulauskiene, T., Zabukas, V., & Vaitiekunas, P. (2009). Investigation of volatile organic Compound (VOC) emission in oil terminal storage tank parks. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 17,81-89.
  12. Todd, G.D., Chessin, R.L. and Colman, J. (1999) Toxicological Profile for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 1-315.
  13. Rauckyte, T., Zak, S., Pawlak, Z., Oloyede, A., Zak, S., & Oloyede, A. (2010). Determination of oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile aromatic compounds in soil and sediment samples. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 163–169.
  14. Zhao, J. Yin, P., Zhao L, Yu, Q, & Lu G. (2015). Spatial and seasonal variations of total petroleum hydrocarbon in surface water and sediment in pearl river delta. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 95, 298-303.
  15. Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Peng, S., Zhou, Q., & Ma, L.Q., (2010). Temporal and spatial trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater of Bohai bay, China from 1996 to 2005. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 238-243

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 4 | Issue 8 | May-June - 2018
Date of Publication Print ISSN Online ISSN
2018-06-30 2395-1990 2394-4099
Page(s) Manuscript Number   Publisher
252-256 IJSRSET184882   Technoscience Academy

Cite This Article

Edna M. Masenge, Shem O. Wandiga, Paul M. Shiundu, Vincent O. Madadi, "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya", International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 4, Issue 8, pp.252-256, May-June-2018.
URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET184882.php