Cooling Effects of Vegetated Courtyard of Mid-Rise Buildings of Tropical Climate

Authors(2) :-Modi Sule Zango, Abimaje Joshua

This document Passive design strategies within the microclimate regarded as crucial. Previously, the heat in the courtyard has recorded but not much attention given to the cooling effect of the vegetated courtyard of mid-rise buildings. However, evapotranspiration and shading effects of vegetation in courtyard considered as alternatives for mitigating the Air Temperature, Mean Radiant Temperature, surface temperature. Vegetation is the sources of coolants for the microclimate of the surrounding area. Other researchers opined that the vegetation within the courtyard represents the most efficient passive manner of cooling building or urban spaces. This study examines the cooling effects of the vegetated courtyard of mid-rise buildings of tropical climate through simulations. Envi-met is a software that simulates the plant-air-atmosphere with the environment and it was used in this study after validating the software. Simulations were conducted under different vegetation scenario using a model. The result shows that there is a positive significance in the performance of the vegetated courtyard. These demonstrate that vegetation affects the thermal indices within the courtyard of the mid-rise building.

Authors and Affiliations

Modi Sule Zango
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Studies, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, PMB1061, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria ,
Abimaje Joshua
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Technologie Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

Vegetated courtyard, a Mid-rise building, Envi-met software, Tropical climate, Surface temperature, Mean radiant temperature, air temperature.

  1. I. S. Zonneveld, "The land unit - A fundamental concept in landscape ecology, and its applications," Landsc. Ecol., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 67–86, 1989.
  2. N. A Al-Hemiddi and K. a Megren Al-Saud, "The effect of a ventilated interior courtyard on the thermal performance of a house in a hot–arid region," Renew. Energy, vol. 24, no. 3–4, pp. 581–595, Nov. 2001.
  3. A. Tablada and B. Blocken, "The influence of courtyard geometry on air flow and thermal comfort: CFD and thermal comfort simulations," PLEA2005 - 22nd Conf. Passive. Low Energy Archit., no. November, pp. 13–16, 2005.
  4. I. Rajapaksha, H. Nagai, and M. Okumiya, "A ventilated courtyard as a passive cooling strategy in the warm humid tropics," Renew. Energy, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1755–1778, 2003.
  5. H. Safarzadeh and M. N. Bahadori, "Passive cooling effects of courtyards," Build. Environ, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 89–104, 2005.
  6. F. Soflaei, M. Shokouhian, and S. M. M. Shemirani, "Investigating of Iranian Traditional Courtyard as Passive Cooling Strategy (A Field Study on BS climate)," Int. J. Sustain. Built Environ, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 99–113, 2015.
  7. M. A. Canton, C. Ganem, G. Barea, and J. F. Llano, "Courtyards as a passive strategy in semi dry areas. Assessment of summer energy and thermal conditions in a refurbished school building," Renew. Energy, vol. 69, pp. 437–446, 2014.
  8. M. Taleghani, M. Tenpierik, A. van den Dobbelsteen, and D. J. Sailor, "Heat in courtyards: A validated and calibrated parametric study of heat mitigation strategies for urban courtyards in the Netherlands," Sol. Energy, vol. 103, pp. 108–124, 2014.
  9. T. Kubota, M. A. Zakaria, S. Abe, and D. H. C. Toe, "Thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia," Build. Environ. vol. 112, pp. 115–131, 2017.
  10. M. Bulus, M. B. Hamid, and L. Y. Wah, "Courtyard as a Passive Cooling Strategy in Buildings," vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2017.
  11. L. Shashua-Bar, D. Pearlmutter, and E. Erell, "The cooling efficiency of urban landscape strategies in a hot dry climate," Landsc. Urban Plan, vol. 92, no. 3–4, pp. 179–186, 2009.
  12. L. Shashua-Bar, D. Pearlmutter, and E. Erell, "The influence of trees and grass on outdoor thermal comfort in a hot-arid environment," Int. J. Climatol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1498–1506, 2011.
  13. A.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Juan, C.-Y. Wen, and C.-J. Chang, "Numerical simulation of cooling effect of vegetation enhancement in a subtropical urban park," Appl. Energy, vol. 192, pp. 178–200, 2017.
  14. T. G. Farea, D. R. Ossen, and A. D. Isah, "Common Configuration of Light-Well in High-Rise Residential buildings in Kuala Lumpur," 4th Int. Netw. Trop. Archit., no. DECEMBER, pp. 1–8, 2012.
  15. S. N. A. Saruddin and F. M. Nazri, "Fragility curves for low- and mid-rise buildings in Malaysia," in Procedia Engineering, 2015, vol. 125, pp. 873–878.
  16. M. F. Shahidan, M. K. M. Shariff, P. Jones, E. Salleh, and A. M. Abdullah, "A comparison of Mesua ferrea L. and Hura crepitans L. for shade creation and radiation modification in improving thermal comfort," Landsc. Urban Plan, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 168–181, 2010.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 4 | Issue 9 | July-August 2018
Date of Publication : 2018-07-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 87-93
Manuscript Number : IJSRSET184915
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

Modi Sule Zango, Abimaje Joshua, " Cooling Effects of Vegetated Courtyard of Mid-Rise Buildings of Tropical Climate, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 4, Issue 9, pp.87-93, July-August-2018.
Journal URL :

Article Preview