In Vitro Gas Production Assessment of Ensiled Brachiaria Decumbens with Different Additives as Animal Feed During the Dry Season

Authors(3) :-Binuomote R. T., Ojoawo O. T., Ojejinmi A. A.

Scarcity of forages during the dry season in Nigeria has lingered. This study therefore assessed the nutritive quality of Brachiaria decumbens with additives prepared as silage using in-vitro gas production technique. Brachiaria decumbens was ensiled with four different additives. T1: 90% Brachiaria decumbens+ 10 %Yellow corn residue; T2: 90% Brachiaria decumbens+ 10% White maize residue; T3: 90% Brachiaria decumbens + 10% Guinea corn residue; T4: 90% Brachiaria decumbens + 10% Soy bean residue; T5: 100% Brachiaria decumbens and were incubated for in vitro gas production for 24 hours. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 3, 6,9,12, 15, 18, 21and 24 hr of incubation periods and the organic matter digestibility (OMD), short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and metabolisable energy (ME) were estimated. Results showed that the dry matter content of the silages ranged from 26.35 to 37.57%, the crude protein ranged from 7.30 to 10.00%, the ether extract ranged from 3.60 to 4.27%, The NDF, ADF and ADL were significantly (p<0.05) different among the different silages. The cumulative gas produced ranged between 13.00 and 18.67 ml/200mg DM. There were no significant difference in ME, OMD and SCFA of the silages. The estimated ME (MJ/Kg DM) for the silages ranged from 4.33 MJ/Kg DM to 5.19 MJ/Kg DM. The highest OMD (45.27%) was observed in T2 (Brachiaria decumbens ensiled with white maize residue) and the lowest (41.45%) value in T4 (Brachiaria decumbens ensiled with soy bean residue). The SCFA estimated from gas production were 0.35, 0.50,, 0.37, 0.33 and 0.45 ?Mol.

Authors and Affiliations

Binuomote R. T.
Department of Animal Production and Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Ojoawo O. T.
Department of Animal Production and Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Ojejinmi A. A.
Department of Animal Production and Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Brachiaria decumbens, Silage quality, treatments, Metabolizable energy, microbial degradation

  1. AOAC. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis. AOAC International. 18th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem, Airlington, USA
  2. ARC (1980). The nutrient requirement of ruminant livestock. CAB Farnham Royal, U.K.
  3. Budi, T. and E. Wina, (1995). Chemical evaluation of shrub legumes. Indonesia Ag. Res. Diet. J., 17: 147-158
  4. Bolsen, K.K.,. Ashbell G. Weinberg, Z.G (1996). Silage fermentation and sillage additives.Rev. Asian-Aust. Journal. Animal. Science. 9: 483-493.
  5. Babayemi, O. J. and Bamikole, M. A. (2006a). Supplementary value of Tephrosia bracteolata, Tephrosia candida, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium hay for West African dwarf goats kept on range. Journal of Central European Agriculture 7 (2): 323-328
  6. Babayemi, O.J., Bamikole, M. A. (2006b). Effects of Tephrosia candida DC leaf and its mixtures with Guinea grass on in vitro fermentation changes as feed for ruminants in Nigeria. Pakistan J. Nutr. 5 (1):14- 18
  7. Babayemi, O.J., Bamikole, M.A., Daniel, I.O., Ogungbesan, A. and Babatunde, A. (2003). Growth, nutritive value and dry matter degradability of three tephrosia species. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 30 (1): 62 - 70.
  8. Babayemi, O. J., Demeyer, D. and Fievez, V. (2004) Nutritive value and qualitative assessment of secondary compounds in seeds of eight tropical browse, shrub and pulse legumes. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Ghent University 69 [1]: 103- 110
  9. Babayemi, O.J. (2007). In-vitro fermentation characteristic and acceptability by West Africa Dwarf goat of some dry season forages. Afri. J. Biotech., 6(10):1260-1265.
  10. Babayemi, O.J. (2009). Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by WAD sheep fo guinea grass (Panicum Maximum CV Ntchisi) harvested at 4 and 12week regrowths. African Journal of biotechnology Vol. 8 (16), pp. 3983-3988.
  11. Babayemi, O.J., Igbekoyi, J.A., (2008). In Eric Tielkes (ed). Competition for resources in a changing world: New drive for rural development. Conference of the International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development, Tropentag
  12. Bamikole, M.A., Ikhatua, U.J. Ajulo M.T.. Osuji, A.C (2004). Feed utillisation potential of west African dwarf goats fed different proportions of Ficus thonningii and Panicum maximum. Proceedings of the 29th Annual conference of Nigeria society of Animal Production, Vol., 29, pp: 336 -340.
  13. Becker, K. (1996). Studies on utilization of Moringa oleifera leaves as animal feed. Institute for Animal production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, 480:1.
  14. Blummel, M. and Ørskov, E. R. (1993). Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in predicting feed intake in cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 40:109 - 119.
  15. Blummel, B and Becker, K. (1997). The digestibility characteristics of Fifty-Four roughages and Roughages Neutral Detergent Fiber as described in In Vitro Gas Production and their Relationship to voluntary Feed Intake. Britian. Journal Nutrition, 77:757-768
  16. Broderick, G. A. (1995). Desirable characteristics of forage legumes for improving protein utilization in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2760-2773.
  17. Buxton, D.R., (1996). Quality-related characteristics of forages as influenced by plant environment and agronomic factors. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 59: 37-49
  18. Cheeke, P.R(1995). Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. Journal on. Animinal. Science., 73, 909-918.
  19. Chumpawadee, S. ; Chantiratikul, A. ; Chantiratikul, P., (2007). Chemical compositions and nutritional evaluation of energy feeds for ruminants using an in vitro gas production technique. Pak. J. Nutr., 6 (6): 607-612
  20. Chung, E.L.T. Michael, P. Nobilly, F., Samsudin, A.A. Firdaus, F. and Loh, T. (2018) Can treatment of Brachiaria decumbens improve its utilization in the diets of small ruminants? - a Review. Animal Health and Production .
  21. Cone, J.W., Anthonie, H.G. (1998).Influence of protein fermentation on gas production profiles. Animal Feed Science and Technology 76:251 - 264
  22. Cook B.G., Pengelly B.C., Brown S.D., Donnelly J.L., Eagle D.A., Franco M.A., Hanson J., Mullen B.F., Partridge I.J., Peters M., Schultze-Kraft R.(2005). Tropical forages. CSIRO, DPI and F(QID), CIAT and ILRI, Brisbane, Australia
  23. Costa, K.A.P, Asis, R.L., Guimaraes, K.C., Sevearino , E.C., Assis-Neto, J.M., Crunivel, W.S, Garcia,J.F. and
  24. Santos, N.F. (2011) Quality of Brachiara brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal. Arquivo Brasiliero Med. Vet. Zoote. Vol 63 no 1.
  25. Crutzen, P.J., (1995). The role of methane in atmospheric chemistry and climate. In: von Engelhardt,W., Leonhard- Marek, S., Breves, G., Giesecke, D.E. (Eds.), Ruminant Physiology: Digestion, Metabolism, Growth and Reproduction. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology, Stuttgart, Germany,pp. 291-315.
  26. Demeyer, D. I. and Van Nevel, C. I. (1975). Methanogenesis, an integrated part of carbohydrate fermentation and its control. In digestion and metabolism in the ruminant (LW McDonald and A.C.I. Warner,eds) pp. 366-382. The University of New England Publishing Unit, Armidale, N.S.W., Australia.
  27. Fievez, V. Babayemi, O.J , Demeyer. D. (2005). Estimation of direct and indirect gas production in syringes: a tool to estimate short chain fatty acid production requiring minimal laboratory facilities. Animal Feed Science. Technology.(123-124):197 -210 
  28. Flavia, G., Stephen, T.L., James, A.P., Eliane, S.M., Gustavo, L.C., Roberta, D. and Maria, C.S.F. (2016) The effect of ensiling and hay making on the concentrations of steroidal saponin in two Brachiaria grass species. Ciencia Rural. Vol. 45, no 5, Santa Maria.
  29. Getachew, G.H., P.S. Makkar and K. Becker, (1999). Stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acid and in vitro gas production in presence and absence of polyethylene glycol for tannin containing browses, EAAP Satellite Symposium, Gas production: fermentation kinetics for feed evaluation and to assess microbial activity, 18-19 August, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  30. Getachew, G., G.M. Grovetto, M. Fondivilla G., G.M. Grovetto, M. Fondivilla B. Krishnamoorthy, H. Singh,
  31. Sphaghero P.H. Steingass, P.H. Robinson and M.M. Kailas,(2002). Laboratory Variation of 24h in vitro gas, production and estimated metabolizable energy values of ruminant feeds. Animal. Feed Science Technology. 102: 169-180.
  32. Hasiah, A. H., Elsheikh, H.A., Abdullah, A.S.A.L.A.M, Khairi, H.M. and Rajion, M.A. (2000) Effect of phenobarbitone treatment against signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity in sheep. The Veterinary Journal. Vol 160, Issue 3. Pg 267 - 272.
  33. Henderson. N. (1993). Silage additives. Animal Feed Science Technology.,45: 35-56
  34. Humphreys, L. R., (1991). Tropical pasture utilisation. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge
  35. Isah, O.A.,P.O. Fayemi, M.B. Gazaly, and R.Y. Aderinboye. (2012). “Nutritional Characteristics of Four Browse Plants Consumed by Free-Ranging Ruminants in Western Part of Nigeria”. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 7(12):1944- 1949.
  36. Johnson, K.A., Johnson, D.E.,(1995). Methane Emissions from cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 2483-2492.
  37. Krishnamoorthy, U., Soller, H., Steingass, H.and Menke, K. H. (1995). Energy and protein evaluation of tropical feedstuffs for whole tract and ruminal digestion by chemical analysis and rumen inoculums studies in vitro. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 52: 177-188.
  38. Kung, L. and. Shaver, R (2002). Interpretation and use of silage fermentation analyses reports. Dept. of animal and food science, University of Delaware Newark, DE 19717
  39. Leng, R. A. (1993) Quantitative ruminant nutrition - a green science. Aust J. Agric. Sci. 44, 363-380.
  40. Mahanna, W. C. (1993) Troubleshooting Silage Problems. 4-State Applied Nutrition Conference, June 29-30.
  41. Man and Wilktosson H,(2001) Cassava tops ensiled with or without molasses as additives effect on quality feed intake and digestibility by heifers. Asian -Aust. J. Animal Science vol.14, No 5:624-630
  42. Maijala, K. (1997), Genetic aspect of domestication, Common breeds and their origin In: piper, L and A Rvvinsky(eds).The genetic of sheep.CA
  43. Mebrahtu O, Tenaye SB (1997). Analytical methods for Feeds Animal Excrements and Animal Tissues. International
  44. Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Nutrition Laboratory ILRI-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp. 38 - 40
  45. McDonald.P.,Henderson, A.R. and Heron, S.J.E.(1991).The Biochemistry of silage, 2nd ed. Chalcombe Publication, U.K. pp 9-19, 167-183
  46. Mcdonald,P.R.A.,Edwards J.F.D., Greenhalgh and Morgan C.A (1995). Longman scientific and Technical, John Willey and Sons,Inc.New yolk.pp 28 -312
  47. McDonald, P.; Edwards, R. A.; Greenhalgh, J. F. D., (2002). Animal Nutrition. 6th Edition. Longman, London and New York. 543 .
  48. Meissner, H.H., Viljoen, M.D and Van Nierkeki, W.A. (1991). Intake and digestibility by sheep of Anthephora, Panicum, Rhode and Smuts finger grass pastures: Proceeding of the IVth International Rangeland Congress, September1991. Montipellier, France, pp 648-649
  49. Miles, J.W., Maass, B.L., do Valle, C.B., ( 1996) Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement; Eds.; CIAT: Cali, Colombia pp. 247-257
  50. Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D., Schneider, W. (1979). The estimation of the digestibility and metabolisable energy content of ruminant feedingstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor. Journal Agricultural Science (Camb.) 93, 217-222.
  51. Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value from obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev., 28: 7-55.
  52. Muck, R.E., (1996). Silage inoculation: In Inoculation of Silage and Its Effect on Silage quality, US, Dairy Forage Research Centre, International Conference With Dairy and Forage Industries, pp: 43-51.
  53. Nasrullah, M Niimi, R Akashi and O Kawamura. (2003). Nuritive evalution of forage plants grown in South Sulawesi ,Indonesia. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(5):693-701
  54. Ndikumana, J.; de Leeuw, P.N.( 1996) Regional experience with Brachiaria: Sub-Saharan Africa. In Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement; Miles, J.W., Maass, B.L., do Valle, C.B., Eds.; CIAT: Cali, Colombia, 1996; pp. 247-257
  55. NRC( 1985). National Research Council. Nutrition Requirements for Sheep Sixth Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  56. NRC (2001): Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th rev. ed. National Research Council, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press
  57. Norton, B.W., (1994). The nutritive value of tree legumes. In: Forage tree legumes in Tropical Agriculture, Gutteridge, R.C., and Shelton, H.M. (Eds.) CAB International, UK, Pp. 177-191.
  58. Oduguwa, B.O., A.O. Jolaosho and M.T. Ayankoso, (2007). Effect of ensiled on physical properties, chemical composition and mineral contents of guinea grass and cassava tops silage. Nigeria Journal of Animal Production. 34:100-106.
  59. Opasina, B. A. (1996) Photosensitization jaundice syndrome in West African Dwarf sheep and goats grazed on Brachiaria decumbens. Tropical Grassland. 30: 155
  60. Ortega-Gomez, R., Castillo-Gallegos, E., Jarillo- Rodriguez, J., Escobar-Hemandez, R., Ocana-Zavaleta, E. and Valles de la Mora, B. 2011. Nutritive quality of ten grasses during the rainy season in a hot humid climate and ultisol soil. Tropical and Subtropical Agro-Ecosystems. Vol. 13 no 3. Pp 481-491
  61. Ørskov, E. R. and McDonald, I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in rumen from incubation measurements according to rate of passage. J. Agric.Sci. Camb., 92: 449-503.
  62. Ranjhnan, S.K. (2001). Animal nutrition in the tropics (5th revised eds). Vikas Publishing House (PVT) Ltd. Pg. 89-96.
  63. Rika, I.K. (1990). New forage species for coconut plantations in Bali. In Forages for Plantation Crops; ACIAR: Sanur Beach, Bali,.
  64. Sallam, S.M.A., Bueno, I.C.S, Brigide, P., Godoy, P.B., Vitti, D.M. and Abdalla, A.L. (2009): Efficacy of eucalyptus oil on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production. Options Mediterr., 85: 267-272.
  65. SAS (2002). User’s Guide. Statistical Analysis Institute Inc. Cary, NC.
  66. Steingass H and K.H. Menke, (1986). Schatzung des energetischen Futterwertes aus der in vitro pansensaft bestimmten Gasbildung und der chemischen analysis. Tirerenahrung, 14:251.
  67. Susan, G.L. (2015) Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity in grazing ruminants. Agriculture, 971- 990. Doi:10.3390/agriculture50404971.
  68. Topps, J.H., (1992). Potential composition and use of legumes shrubs and trees as fodder for livestock in the tropics. J. Agri. Sci. Camb., 118: 1-8.
  69. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B.A. (1991). Methods for dietry fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-strach polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 74: 3583-3597.
  70. Van Soest, P.J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of Ruminants, 2nd edn. Cornell University Press, 476pp
  71. Woolford, M. K (1990) .The detrimental effect of air on silage. Journal applied .Bacteriol. 68:101-106.
  72. Wasinghe, D.D., Balasuriya, B.R.U., Horadagouda, N.U. 1987. A preliminary report on investigation into jaundice and photosensitization among goats and sheep. Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal, . 33:44-55.
  73. Yusuf, K.O., Isah O.A., Arigbede, O.M., Oni, A. O and Onwuka , C.F.I (2013). Chemical composition, secondary metabolite, in vitro gas production characteristics and acceptability study of some forage for ruminant feeding in South -Westhern Nigeria. Nigeria Journal Animal. Production.40(1):179-190.

Publication Details

Published in : Volume 4 | Issue 8 | May-June 2018
Date of Publication : 2018-06-30
License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Page(s) : 695-709
Manuscript Number : IJSRST196633
Publisher : Technoscience Academy

Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099

Cite This Article :

Binuomote R. T., Ojoawo O. T., Ojejinmi A. A., " In Vitro Gas Production Assessment of Ensiled Brachiaria Decumbens with Different Additives as Animal Feed During the Dry Season, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology(IJSRSET), Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-4099, Volume 4, Issue 8, pp.695-709, May-June-2018. Available at doi :
Journal URL :

Article Preview